09-Rangkaian Counter

09-Rangkaian Counter

10-Rangkaian Counter Digital System Teknik Elektro TI-UHAMKA Counter

Counter ( rangkaian logika sekuensial yang di bentuk dari flip-flop ) Mencacah dapat diartikan menghitung, hampir semua sistem logika menerapkan pencacah. Komputer digit menerapkan pencacah guna mengemudikan urutan dan pelaksanaan langkah langkah dalam program. Fungsi dasar pencacah adalah untuk mengingat berapa banyak pulsa detak yang telah dimasukkan kepada masukkan; sehingga pengertian paling dasar pencacah adalah sistem memori.

Karakteristik Penting Counter/Pencacah 1. Sampai berapa banyak ia dapat mencacah (modulo pencacah); 2. Mencacah maju, ataukah mencacah mundur; 3. Kerjanya sinkron atau tak sinkron;

Kegunaan Counter/Pencacah 1. Menghitung banyaknya detak pulsa dalam satu periode waktu 2. Membagi frekuensi 3. Pengurutan alamat

4. Beberapa rangkaian aritmatika. Jenis Counter/Pencacah ASYNCHRONOUS SYNCHRONOUS

Pencacah Asinkron Seringkali disebut ripple counter. Istilah asinkron merujuk pada kejadian-kejadian yang tidak mempunyai hubungan waktu yang tetap antara FF satu dengan FF lainnya.

Flip-flop tidak mendapatkan pulsa clock dari satu sumber yang sama. Flip-flop pertama (LSB) mendapatkan pulsa clock dari sumber clock eksternal, sedangkan flip-flop berikutnya mendapatkan pulsa clock dari output flip-flop sebelumnya.

Pencacah Asinkron Biner 2-bit (1) Dibangun dari dua buah flip-flop JK. Flip-flop pertama mendapatkan pulsa clock dari sumber clock, sedangkan flip-flop kedua mendapatkan pulsa clock dari output FF pertama. fQ0=fCLK/2; fQ1=fQ0/2.

Diagram logika pencacah asinkron biner 2-bit. Pencacah Asinkron Biner 2-bit (2) Diagram pewaktuan counter asinkron

biner 2-bit Tabel urutan keadaan pencacah Pencacah asinkron biner 3-bit (1)

1. Dibangun dari 3 buah flip-flop JK. 2. Flip-flop pertama mendapatkan pulsa clock dari sumber clock, FF kedua mendapatkan pulsa clock dari output FF pertama dan FF ketiga mendapatkan pulsa clock dari output FF kedua. 3. fQ0=fCLK/2; fQ1=fQ0/2; fQ2=fQ1/2

Pencacah asinkron biner 3-bit (2) Diagram logika dan diagram pewaktuan

pencacah asinkron biner 3-bit Kembali ke nol Pencacah asinkron biner 3-bit (3)

Tabel urutan biner dari pencacah Pencacah Sinkron 1. Istilah sinkron merujuk pada kejadian yang mempunyai hubungan waktu pasti antar flip-flop yang dengan lainnya.

2. Dalam pencacah, istilah sinkron berarti bahwa setiap FF mendapatkan pulsa clock dari satu sumber clock yang sama. Pencacah sinkron biner 2-bit (1)

Pencacah sinkron biner 3-bit (1) Pencacah sinkron biner 3-bit (2) Tabel kondisi output pencacah Struktur Internal IC 7493

Up/Down Counter Up Counter 0

1 2 3

Down Counter Up/Down Counter PRESETTABLE COUNTERS

Can be preset to any desired count. To operate: 1. Apply desired count to parallel data inputs P2, P1, P0. 2. Apply a low pulse to the parallel load input PL. BCD COUNTER Binary counter that counts from 0000 to 1001 before it

recycles (MOD-10). Johnson Counter Shift register in which the inverted output of the last FF is fed back to the input of the first FF.

Johnson Counter Ring Counter Shift register counter with feedback from Q of last FF back to first FF input

Ring Counter COUNTER TYPES Asynchronous Counter (a.k.a. Ripple or Serial Counter): each FF is triggered one at a time with output of one FF serving as clock input of next FF

in the chain. Synchronous Counter (a.k.a. Parallel Counter): all the FFs in the counter are clocked at the same time. Up Counter: counter counts from zero to a maximum count. Down Counter: counter counts from a maximum count down to zero. BCD Counter: counter counts from 0000 to 1001 before it recycles.

Ring Counter: shift register in which the output of the last FF is connected back to the input of the first FF. Pre-settable Counter: counter that can be preset to any starting count either synchronously or asynchronously Johnson Counter: shift register in which the inverted output of the last FF is connected to the input of the first FF.

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