投影片 1 - Nkfust

投影片 1 - Nkfust

Using Computer Technology to Enhance Language Teaching 94 Outline I. Why do we need computers for language teaching? II. How are computers used in language teaching contexts? III. What computer technology can be used for language teaching? IV. What knowledge and competence do language teachers need? V. Conclusion I. Why do we need computers for language teaching? Is the computer a must in language teaching?

The functions of computer technology for langu age learning New Paradigms in Education Is the computer a must in language teaching? Two fallacies (Bax, 2003) 1. Omnipotence fallacy Computers can do everything and should replace current learning and teaching technologies. 2. Sole Agent fallacy The key or only factor in successful implementati on of the technology is the technology itself. Is the computer a must in language teaching? Computers CAN

Computer CANT Judge predetermined right-orwrong answers, e.g., multiple choice and fill-in-the-blanks Judge unexpected input Provide immediate, yet fixed, feedback, suggestions, and encouragement Provide individualized feedback beyond a predetermined list of messages Provide authentic information through multimedia - texts, images, sounds, videos, and animations Engage learner in rich negotiation of meaning characteristic of faceto-face interaction Motivate task persistence

Motivate depth and quality of engagement characteristic of human interaction Record learners writing, speech, and learning progress (Adapted from Meskill, 2002) Is the computer a must in language teaching? No, but computers will become normalized in everyda y practice, like a pen or a book (Bax,2003). Computer technology has to be treated as an aid, but n ot a panacea.

Computer technology is neither an unalloyed blessing nor an unmitigated curse. The effectiveness of computer use in learning and teac hing does not reside in the computer technology itself b ut in how it is put to use and for what purposes. The functions of computer technology for language learning Computer technology can function as a multisensory wonderland (multiple modalities) a reference library (rich, authentic resources) a virtual classroom (more learning opportunities)

a meeting place (more communication opportunities) a publishing space (sense of achievement) New Paradigms in Education (Gubbins, Clay, & Perkins, 1999) Traditional New lecturing on factual information guiding, motivating, and facilitating working as an individual valuing working together

teacher was the primary source of knowledge many rich sources of immediate knowledge teacher and print media served as the primary means of communication learning using a vast variety of media including the Internet learning was separated from the rest of the community learning now occurs globally I. Why do we need computers for language teaching? Strengths of computer

technology New paradigms in education and language teaching Multimedia Resources Constructivist approach Interactivity Communicative language teaching Flexibility II. How are computers used in language teaching contexts? Four Contexts and Three Roles Locus of Control Early CALL vs. Modern CALL

(*CALL: computer assisted language learning) Contexts & Roles for computer assisted language teaching Contexts Roles of the Computer One-computer classroo m Tool Computer Network roo m Tutor

Medium Self-access learning ce nter Distance learning Locus of Control Locus of control: the continuum between the programs and the lear ners responsibility for decisions about the learning outcomes, sequenc e of learning, learner interactions, and even content. Program User Tutorial | Games | Simulation | Experimental | Content-free | Programming games simulations tools languages (Chandlers categories of CAI/CALL activities, 1984) Behaviorist st

Model (tutor) The Web, CMC Constructivi Model (tool & medium) Individualism on & Competitiveness on Collaborati & Negotiati Early CALL vs. Modern CALL Early CALL Modern CALL behaviorist approaches

communicative and socioconstructivist approaches individualized, programmedlearning drills collaborative, task-based activities viewing language as discrete viewing language as a whole components emphasizing the importance of control emphasizing the importance of guidance giving extrinsic feedback giving both extrinsic and intrinsic feedback III. What computer technology can be used for language teaching? 1)

CALL-specific software and websites Tutor 2) Generic application programs Tool 3) Web resources and programs 4) 5) Computer-mediated communication (CMC) programs

Tool Medium Course management systems (learning platforms) Tutor, Tool, & Medium 1) CALL-Specific Software & Websites Language Learning Lessons + Activities multiple-choice & true/false quizzes gap-filling exercises or cloze matching re-ordering/sequencing crossword puzzles games simulations *see CD-ROM examples for language learning http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod2-2.htm#young 2) Generic Application Programs Applications designed for general purposes that can be used to support language learning, such as

word-processors (Word) presentation software (PowerPoint) spreadsheet (Excel) diagramming software (Visio) *Also see Microsoft Office Online Templates 3) Web Resources and Programs Online dictionaries Online concordancers Reference sites (encyclopedias, e-texts, etc.) News/magazine sites

Web-quests Web-publishing tools (webpages, blogs, wikis) Online Dictionaries (1) English-English Multi-source Dictionaries Answers.com TheFreeDictionary.com OneLook Dictionary Search

Language Tools Online Dictionaries (2) English-Chinese/Chinese-English Dictionaries / / Yahoo!/ ( Dr. eye )

Sino ( ) Online Concordancers (1) What is a concordancer? A concordancer is a computer program that allows users to search a collection of authentic texts (i.e. a corpus) for multiple examples of selected words or phrases. Users can use a concordancer to find examples of authentic usage to demonstrate word collocations, word usage, or even the structure of a text. What can teachers and learners do with concordancers? Teachers can generate exercises (e.g., cloze tests) based on authentic examples drawn from a variety of corpora rather than made-up ones. Students can work out rules of grammar or usage and lexical features for themselves by searching for key words in context. This helps them to raise their language awareness, particularly in word

collocations. Online Concordancers (2) Collocation Explorer CANDLE Project (NLP tools, including TOTALrecall and TANGO) , VLCs Web Concordancer (Virtual Language Center of the P olytechnic University of Hong Kong) Online KWIC Concordancer (a business letter corpus)

Simple Search of BNC (British National Corpus) Google or other search engines Reference Sites: Encyclopedias Bartleby.com: Great Books Online Encyclopedia Britannica Columbia Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia Smithsonian Encyclopedia.com Wikipedia Canadian Encyclopedia MSN Encarta: Online Encyclopedia Infoplease

Informationsphere Literary Encyclopedia Reference Sites: E-texts The World Wide School Library

Online Library of Literature The Literature Network The Online Books Page Page by Page Books Great Books Bibliomania - Online Literature The Internet Classics Archive by MIT Project Bartleby: Great Books Online Full Text Great Literature Classics The Classical Library Classis Bookshelf Project Gutenberg Electronic Books American and English Literature Online Books News/Magazine Sites In Taiwan Bilingual Student Post The China Post Taiwan News Taipei Times ICRT EZ News Sinorama

News Talk ( ) In the U.S. or U.K. BBC News BBC Learning English CNN News

CNN Student News Discovery.com Newsweek National Geographic Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) Reader's Digest Time Magazine online edition The New York Times USA Today US News and World Reports Voice of America - Special English Washington Post Web-Quests (1) A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners' time well, to focus on us ing information rather than looking for it, and to support learners' th inking at the levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

A WebQuest usually includes the following elements: An introduction or scenario A task that is meaningful and doable A process for completing the task Information resources to support the task A conclusion that brings closure and evaluation

Web-Quests (2) The use of WebQuests facilitates collaborative learning, offer s different kinds of resources, develops thinking skills, and pr ovides a variety of ways to access and construct knowledge. Examples: Charlottes WebQuest Grammar without the pain by Ms. Carino TrackStar (developed by the University of Kansas)

- Track # 126807 New York, New York Web Publishing Tools Webpages TrackStar (http://trackstar.4teachers.org/trackstar/) Web Worksheet Wizard (http://wizard.4teachers.org/) Project Poster (http://poster.4teachers.org/) ( * The above three are all provided by the University of Kansas ht tp://4teachers.org/) Tripod site builder / Yahoo! SiteBuilder Blogs

My students examples Wikis (for e-portfolio or collaborative projects) Seedwiki http://www.seedwiki.com/ Schtuff http://www.schtuff.com/ Jotspot http://www.jot.com/index.php 4) CMC Programs Synchronous: Asynchronous: Online Chat Room

Email / Discussion Forum Daves ESL Cafe's Chat C entral ESL Chat Room in English Club.com Chat Room in Englishbaby .com VLC Chat Rooms (Hong K ong) Dave's ESL Cafe: 1) Student Discussion Forums 2) Teacher Discussion Forums BBC Learning English Comm unicate EnglishClub.com ESL Forums Nicenet.org Possible Uses of Asynchronous Discussion 1. Exchange of ideas and perspectives 2. Reflective conversation

3. Debate on controversial issues 4. Peer review of assignments 5. Presentation of text-based works Strengths of Using Asynchronous Discussion 1. Extending classroom discussions 2. Providing a less intimidating environment 3. Allowing everyones voice to be heard 4. Supporting collaborative learning 5. Encouraging reflective learning and critical thinking 6. Promoting more careful deliberation over course content 7. Gaining multiple perspectives 8. Increasing the use of the target language 9. Recording and storing all discussions Constraints of Using Asynchronous Discussion 1. Extra time needed for both students and the teacher 2. Text based interaction only and lack of non-verbal communication 3. No guarantee for immediate feedback 4. Lack of spontaneous exchange of ideas 5. Students language proficiency, attitudes, peer interaction

can affect the quantity and quality of discussion 6. The design of discussion questions and activities can affect the willingness of student participation Tips to Implement Asynchronous Discussion Activities 1. Require participation and include a grade for participation. 2. Divide the class into small groups for discussion. 3. Clearly define tasks, expectations, and deadlines. 4. Make the discussion questions interesting, meaningful, and purposeful. 5.

Make sure discussions are of a long enough duration to allow full and thoughtful participation. 6. Refer to students discussions often in class and help them to see the value of online discussions. 7. Encourage students to ask questions to each other, so that more responses can be elicited. 5) Course Management System (Learning Platform) A Course Management System (CMS) is a software system designed to facilitate teachers in the management of online learning courses for their students. These services generally include access control, delivery and management of course content, communication tools, quiz functions, and administration of user groups. The functions of CMS: tool + tutor + medium Similar Terms: also called Virtual Learning Environment (VLE),

Learning Management System (LMS), Learning Support System (LSS), or Learning Platform. 5) Course Management System Three uses of CMS in educational contexts Standalone Online Course predominantly in the distance learning sector separation of place and/or time Compliment (Enhanced) Course enhance the traditional face-to-face course does not reduce contact time Supplement (Hybrid / Blended) Course fill in or complete the face-to-face course reducing the time dependency Online Lesson Design Content Design Presentation Visual Design Consistency

Conciseness Comprehensibility Legibility Accuracy Good organization Careful use of color Interestingness Interaction Inquiry-based Task-based Emphasis on Collaboration Immediate feedback Good use of space Alignment & proximity Well-designed tables, charts, and figures easy and clear navigation Small file size

Lessons Learned from Research The online environment is not conducive to lecturing and this should be avoided in static information displays. Take advantage of the interactive environment to produce engagement. Collaborative learning groups appear to be both effective and efficient. Student satisfaction appears to be best when utilizing team projects that focus on critical thinking and real-life problem solving skills. The Key to learning is the ability to provide periodic graded self-assessments of the individuals knowledge base with immediate feedback in both performance and areas of deficits. IV. Knowledge and competence language teachers need Second Language Acquisition Language Teaching Methods Tool Literacies computer

literacy network literacy technology literacy CALL Electronic Literacy Communicati on Construction Research (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000) Literacies of Representation information literacy media literacy (Tyner, Visual literacy

K. 1998, Digital Literacy) IV. Knowledge and competence language teachers need Electronic literacy (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000) Communication: how to express and interpret meaning in the computer-m ediated communication environment Construction: how to write 1) from essay to hypertext, 2) from words to multimedia, and 3) from author to co-constructor Research: how to navigate Web sources, search for information, an d evaluate and interpret the found information V. Conclusion What is the use of a book, thought Alice, without pictures or conversation?

~ From Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (p.1) Pedagogy must drive the choices of instructional t echnology, not the other way around (Chizmar & Wal bert, 1999) The effectiveness of computer-assisted language lear ning and teaching resides in how the computer is pu t to use and for what purposes it is used. The true creativeness of a learning/teaching activity must com e from the pedagogical side. If knowledge is worth having, it is worth sharing. ~ Deborah Cameron ! Dr. Chi-Fen Emily Chen Website: http://www2.nkfust.edu.tw/~emchen/Home Email: [email protected] Phone: 07-601-1000 ext 5118

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