11-3 EXPLORING MENDELIAN GENETICS Objectives: 1) Explain the principle of independent assortment. 2) Describe the inheritance patterns that exist aside from simple dominance.
3) Explain how Mendels principles apply to all organisms. Independent Assortment Mendel completed experiments with pea plants to determine if the segregation of one
pair of alleles affected the segregation of another pair of alleles 2-factor cross The 2-Factor Cross: F1 1) Cross truebreeding plants that make only
round yellow peas (RRYY) with plants that make wrinkled green peas (rryy) 2) Every F1 genotype was RrYy
The 2-Factor Cross: F2 F1 plants were heterozygous (RrYy) 1) Cross the F1 plants with each other to determine if the segregation of one pair of alleles affected the segregation of
another pair of alleles 2) Made the F2 Generation The 2-Factor Cross: F2 Contd Discovered the principle of independent assortment Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes
Helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, and other organisms Dog Breeds A Summary of Mendels Principles Form the basis of the modern science of genetics
1)Inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by genes A) Passed from parents to their offspring A Summary of Mendels Principles
Contd 2) Sometimes 2 or more forms of the gene (alleles) for a single trait exist A)May be dominant or recessive 3) In most sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has 2 copies of each gene (1 from each parent) A) Segregated from each other when gametes are formed
A Summary of Mendels Principles Contd Alleles for different genes usually segregate independently of 1 another 4) Beyond Dominant and Recessive
Alleles Important exceptions to most of Mendels principles 1)Not all genes are in patterns of dominant and recessive alleles 2)Majority of genes have more than 2 alleles A)Many important traits are controlled by more than 1 gene *Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes
Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance: in which 1 allele is not completely dominant over another The heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the 2 homozygous phenotypes Codominance Codominance: both alleles contribute to the phenotype
Both are dominant Both show up Multiple Alleles Multiple alleles: many genes have more than 2 alleles for combinations Can only have 2 alleles (1 from mom and 1 from dad) More than 2 possible alleles exist in a population Polygenic Traits
Polygenic traits: traits controlled by 2 or more genes Hint: 2 Allelesgenetrait Often show a wide range of phenotypes Blue Ticket Question What are multiple alleles?
Blue Ticket Answer Genes have more than 2 alleles for combinations Applying Mendels Principles 1900s American geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan Experimented with genetics
of fruit flies Morgan and other biologists had tested each of Mendels principles and learned that they applied to other organisms too Mendelian genetics can be used to Study the inheritance of human traits
Calculate the probability of certain traits in the next Genetics and the Environment Characteristics of an organism is determined by genes and environment Genes provide a plan for development, but how that plan unfolds also depends on
the environment 11-3 Exit Ticket Answer the following questions. Use complete sentences. You may NOT use your book. You MAY use your notes. This is a quiz grade.
1) What is the principle of independent assortment? 2) What are the inheritance patterns that exist aside from simple dominance? 3) How does Mendels principles apply to all organisms?
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