12 Processor Structure and Function

12 Processor Structure and Function

+ William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 9th Edition + Chapter 14 Processor Structure and Function + Processor Organization Processor Requirements: Fetch instruction

Interpret instruction The execution of an instruction may require performing some arithmetic or logical operation on data Write data The execution of an instruction may require reading data from memory or an I/O module Process data The instruction is decoded to determine what action is required

Fetch data The processor reads an instruction from memory (register, cache, main memory) The results of an execution may require writing data to memory or an I/O module In order to do these things the processor needs to store some data temporarily and therefore needs a small internal memory CPU With the System Bus CPU Internal Structure + Register Organization Within the processor there is a set of registers that function as a level of memory above main memory and

cache in the hierarchy The registers in the processor perform two roles: User-Visible Registers Enable the machine or assembly language programmer to minimize main memory references by optimizing use of registers Control and Status Registers Used by the control unit to control the operation of the processor and by privileged operating system programs to control the execution of

programs User-Visible Registers Categories: Referenced by means of the machine language that the processor executes General purpose Can be assigned to a variety of functions by the programmer Data May be used only to hold data and cannot be employed in the calculation of an operand address Address May be somewhat general purpose or may be devoted to a particular addressing mode Examples: segment pointers, index registers, stack pointer Condition codes

Also referred to as flags Bits set by the processor hardware as the result of operations Table 14.1 Condition Codes + Control and Status Registers Four registers are essential to instruction execution: Program counter (PC) Instruction register (IR)

Contains the instruction most recently fetched Memory address register (MAR) Contains the address of an instruction to be fetched Contains the address of a location in memory Memory buffer register (MBR) Contains a word of data to be written to memory or the word most recently read + Program Status Word (PSW) Register or set of registers that

contain status information Common fields or flags include: Sign Zero Carry Equal Overflow Interrupt Enable/Disable Supervisor Example Microprocessor Register Organizations

Fetch Read the next instruction from memory into the processor Includes the following stages: Instruction Cycle Execute Interrupt Interpret the opcode and perform the indicated operation If interrupts are

enabled and an interrupt has occurred, save the current process state and service the interrupt Instruction Cycle Instruction Cycle State Diagram Data Flow, Fetch Cycle Data Flow, Indirect Cycle Data Flow, Interrupt Cycle Pipelining Strategy To apply this concept to instruction execution we must recognize that an

instruction has a number of stages Similar to the use of an assembly line in a manufacturing plant New inputs are accepted at one end before previously accepted inputs appear as outputs at the other end Two-Stage Instruction Pipeline + Additional Stages

Fetch instruction (FI) Read the next expected instruction into a buffer Decode instruction (DI) Determine the opcode and the operand specifiers Calculate operands (CO) Calculate the effective

address of each source operand This may involve displacement, register indirect, indirect, or other forms of address calculation Fetch operands (FO) Fetch each operand from memory Operands in registers need not be fetched Execute instruction (EI)

Perform the indicated operation and store the result, if any, in the specified destination operand location Write operand (WO) Store the result in memory Timing Diagram for Instruction Pipeline Operation The Effect of a Conditional Branch on Instruction Pipeline Operation

Not all instructions go thru all six stages; FI, FO, & WO stages involve a memory access, i.e., potential memory conflicts; however desired values may be in cache or one or more stages may be null; CO stage may be dependent upon register contents to be modified by previous instruction still in the pipeline; + Six Stage Instruction Pipeline + Alternative Pipeline Depiction In Figure 14.13b, (which corresponds to Figure 14.11), the pipeline is full at times 6 and 7. At time 7, instruction 3 is in the execute stage and executes a branch to instruction 15. At this point, instructions I4 through I7 are flushed from the pipeline, so that at time 8, only two instructions are in the pipeline, I3 and I15.

+ Speedup Factors with Instruction Pipelining Pipeline Hazards Occur when the pipeline, or some portion of the pipeline, must stall because conditions do not permit continued execution There are three types of hazards: Resource Data Control Also referred to as a pipeline bubble

+ Resource Hazards A resource hazard occurs when two or more instructions that are already in the pipeline need the same resource The result is that the instructions must be executed in serial rather than parallel for a portion of the pipeline A resource hazard is sometimes referred to as a structural hazard Assume a simplified five-stage pipeline, in which each stage takes one clock cycle. Now assume that main memory has a single port and that all instruction fetches and data reads and writes must be performed one at a time. Further, ignore the cache. In this case, an operand read to or write from memory cannot be performed in parallel with an instruction fetch. Therefore, the fetch instruction

stage of the pipeline must idle for one cycle before beginning the instruction fetch for instruction I3. The figure assumes that all other operands are in registers. RAW Hazard + Data Hazards A data hazard occurs when there is a conflict in the access of an operand location Two instructions in a program are to be executed in sequence and both access a particular memory or register operand. If the two instructions are executed in strict sequence, no problem occurs. However, if the instructions are executed in a pipeline, then it is possible for the operand value to be updated in such a way as to produce a different result than would occur with strict sequential execution. In other words, the program produces an incorrect result because of the use of pipelining. + Types of Data Hazard Read

after write (RAW), or true dependency An instruction modifies a register or memory location Succeeding instruction reads data in memory or register location Hazard occurs if the read takes place before write operation is complete Write after read (WAR), or antidependency An instruction reads a register or memory location

Succeeding instruction writes to the location Hazard occurs if the write operation completes before the read operation takes place Write after write (WAW), or output dependency Two instructions both write to the same location Hazard occurs if the write operations take place in the reverse order of the intended sequence + Control Hazard Also known as a branch hazard

Occurs when the pipeline makes the wrong decision on a branch prediction Brings instructions into the pipeline that must subsequently be discarded Dealing with Branches: Multiple streams Prefetch branch target

Loop buffer Branch prediction Delayed branch Multiple Streams A simple pipeline suffers a penalty for a branch instruction because it must choose one of two instructions to fetch next and may make the wrong choice A brute-force approach is to replicate the initial portions of the pipeline and allow the pipeline to fetch both instructions, making use of two streams Drawbacks: With multiple pipelines there are contention delays for access to

the registers and to memory Additional branch instructions may enter the pipeline before the original branch decision is resolved Prefetch Branch Target + When a conditional branch is recognized, the target of the branch is prefetched, in addition to the instruction following the branch Target is then saved until the branch instruction is executed If the branch is taken, the target has

already been prefetched IBM 360/91 uses this approach + Loop Buffer Small, very-high speed memory maintained by the instruction fetch stage of the pipeline and containing the n most recently fetched instructions, in sequence Benefits:

Instructions fetched in sequence will be available without the usual memory access time If a branch occurs to a target just a few locations ahead of the address of the branch instruction, the target will already be in the buffer This strategy is particularly well suited to dealing with loops Similar in principle to a cache dedicated to instructions Differences: The loop buffer only retains instructions in sequence

Is much smaller in size and hence lower in cost + A loop buffer is a small, very-high-speed memory maintained by the instruction fetch stage of the pipeline and containing the n most recently fetched instructions, in sequence. If a branch is to be taken, the hardware first checks whether the branch target is within the buffer. If so, the next instruction is fetched from the buffer. The loop buffer has three benefits: 1. With the use of prefetching, the loop buffer will contain some instruction sequentially ahead of the current instruction fetch address. Thus, instructions fetched in sequence will be available without the usual memory access time. 2. If a branch occurs to a target just a few locations ahead of the address of the branch instruction, the target will already be in the buffer. This is useful for the rather common occurrence of IFTHEN and IFTHENELSE sequences.

3. This strategy is particularly well suited to dealing with loops, or iterations; hence the name loop buffer. If the loop buffer is large enough to contain all the instructions in a loop, then those instructions need to be fetched from memory only once, for the first iteration. For subsequent iterations, all the needed instructions are already in the buffer. The loop buffer is similar in principle to a cache dedicated to instructions. The differences are that the loop buffer only retains instructions in sequence and is much smaller in size and hence lower in cost. Loop Buffer + Branch Prediction Various techniques can be used to predict whether a branch will be taken:

1. Predict never taken These approaches are static 2. Predict always taken They do not depend on the execution history up to the time of the conditional branch instruction 3. Predict by opcode 4. Taken/not taken switch These approaches are dynamic They depend on the execution history 5. Branch history table + Branch Prediction

Flow Chart Branch Prediction State Diagram + Dealing With Branches With a predict-never-taken strategy the instruction fetch stage always fetches the next sequential address. If a branch is taken, some logic in the processor detects this and instructs that the next instruction be fetched from the target address (in addition to flushing the pipeline). The branch history table is treated as a cache. Each prefetch triggers a lookup in the branch history table. If no match is found, the next sequential address is used for the fetch. If a match is found, a prediction is made based on the state of the instruction: Either the next sequential

address or the branch target address is fed to the select logic. + Intel 80486 Pipelining Fetch Decode stage 1

Expands each opcode into control signals for the ALU Also controls the computation of the more complex addressing modes Execute All opcode and addressing-mode information is decoded in the D1 stage 3 bytes of instruction are passed to the D1 stage from the prefetch buffers D1 decoder can then direct the D2 stage to capture the rest of the instruction Decode stage 2 Objective is to fill the prefetch buffers with new data as soon as the old data have been consumed by the instruction decoder Operates independently of the other stages to keep the prefetch buffers full Stage includes ALU operations, cache access, and register update

Write back Updates registers and status flags modified during the preceding execute stage + The Intel 80486 implements a five-stage pipeline: Fetch: Instructions are fetched from the cache or from external memory and placed into one of the two 16-byte prefetch buffers. The objective of the fetch stage is to fill the prefetch buffers with new data as soon as the old data have been consumed by the instruction decoder. Because instructions are of variable length (from 1 to 11 bytes not counting prefixes), the status of the prefetcher relative to the other pipeline stages varies from instruction to instruction. On average, about five instructions are fetched with each 16-byte load [CRAW90]. The fetch stage operates independently of the other stages to keep the prefetch buffers full. Decode

stage 1: All opcode and addressing-mode information is decoded in the D1 stage. The required information, as well as instruction-length information, is included in at most the first 3 bytes of the instruction. Hence, 3 bytes are passed to the D1 stage from the prefetch buffers. The D1 decoder can then direct the D2 stage to capture the rest of the instruction (displacement and immediate data), which is not involved in the D1 decoding. Decode stage 2: The D2 stage expands each opcode into control signals for the ALU. It also controls the computation of the more complex addressing modes. Execute: This stage includes ALU operations, cache access, and register update. Write back: This stage, if needed, updates registers and status flags modified during the preceding execute stage. If the current instruction updates memory, the computed value is sent to the cache and to the bus-interface write buffers at the same time. With

the use of two decode stages, the pipeline can sustain a throughput of close to one instruction per clock cycle. Complex instructions and conditional branches can slow down this rate. + 80486 Instruction Pipeline Examples There is no delay introduced into the pipeline when a memory access is required. However there can be a delay for values used to compute memory addresses. That is, if a value is loaded from memory into a register and that register is then used as a base register in the next instruction, the processor will stall for one cycle. In this example, the processor accesses the cache in the EX stage of the first instruction and stores the value retrieved in the register during the WB stage. However, the next instruction needs this register in its D2 stage. When the D2 stage lines up with the WB stage of the previous instruction, bypass signal paths allow the D2

stage to have access to the same data being used by the WB stage for writing, saving one pipeline stage. Figure 14.21c illustrates the timing of a branch instruction, assuming that the branch is taken. The compare instruction updates condition codes in the WB stage, and bypass paths make this available to the EX stage of the jump instruction at the same time. In parallel, the processor runs a speculative fetch cycle to the target of the jump during the EX stage of the jump instruction. If the processor determines a false branch condition, it discards this prefetch and continues execution with the next sequential instruction (already fetched and decoded). Table 14.2 x86 Processor Registers + General: There are eight 32-bit general-purpose registers (see Figure 14.3c). These may be used for all types of x86 instructions; they can also hold operands for address calculations. In addition, some of these

registers also serve special purposes. For example, string instructions use the contents of the ECX, ESI, and EDI registers as operands without having to reference these registers explicitly in the instruction. As a result, a number of instructions can be encoded more compactly. In 64-bit mode, there are 16 64-bit generalpurpose registers. Segment: The six 16-bit segment registers contain segment selectors, which index into segment tables, as discussed in Chapter 8. The code segment (CS) register references the segment containing the instruction being executed. The stack segment (SS) register references the segment containing a user-visible stack. The remaining segment registers (DS, ES, FS, GS) enable the user to reference up to four separate data segments at a time. Flags: The 32-bit EFLAGS register contains condition codes and various mode bits. In 64-bit mode, this register is extended to 64 bits and referred to as RFLAGS. In the current architecture definition, the upper 32 bits of RFLAGS are unused. Instruction There

pointer: Contains the address of the current instruction. are also registers specifically devoted to the floating-point unit: Numeric: Each register holds an extended-precision 80-bit floating-point number. There are eight registers that function as a stack, with push and pop operations available in the instruction set. Control: The 16-bit control register contains bits that control the operation of the floating-point unit, including the type of rounding control; single, double, or extended precision; and bits to enable or disable various exception conditions. Status: The 16-bit status register contains bits that reflect the current state of the floating-point unit, including a 3-bit pointer to the top of the stack; condition codes reporting the outcome of the last operation; and exception flags. Tagword:

This 16-bit register contains a 2-bit tag for each floating-point numeric register, which indicates the nature of the contents of the corresponding register. The four possible values are valid, zero, special (NaN, infinity, denormalized), and empty. These tags enable programs to check the contents of a numeric register without performing complex decoding of the actual data in the register. For example, when a context switch is made, the processor need not save any floatingpoint registers that are empty. The use of most of the aforementioned registers is easily understood. Let us elaborate briefly on several of the registers. Table 14.2 x86 Processor Registers x86 EFLAGS Register +

Trap flag (TF): When set, causes an interrupt after the execution of each instruction. This is used for debugging. Interrupt enable flag (IF): When set, the processor will recognize external interrupts. Direction flag (DF): Determines whether string processing instructions increment or decrement the 16-bit half-registers SI and DI (for 16-bit operations) or the 32-bit registers ESI and EDI (for 32bit operations). I/O privilege flag (IOPL): When set, causes the processor to generate an exception on all accesses to I/O devices during protected-mode operation. Resume flag (RF): Allows the programmer to disable debug exceptions so that the instruction can be restarted after a debug exception without immediately causing another debug exception.

Alignment check (AC): Activates if a word or doubleword is addressed on a nonword or nondoubleword boundary. Identification flag (ID): If this bit can be set and cleared, then this processor supports the processorID instruction. This instruction provides information about the vendor, family, and model. In addition, there are 4 bits that relate to operating mode. The Nested Task (NT) flag indicates that the current task is nested within another task in protected- mode operation. The Virtual Mode (VM) bit allows the programmer to enable or disable virtual 8086 mode, which determines whether the processor runs as an 8086 machine. The Virtual Interrupt Flag (VIF) and Virtual Interrupt Pending (VIP) flag are used in a multitasking environment. Control Registers + The

x86 employs four control registers (register CR1 is unused) to control various aspects of processor operation (Figure 14.23). All of the registers except CR0 are either 32 bits or 64 bits long, depending on whether the implementation supports the x86 64-bit architecture. The CR0 register contains system control flags, which control modes or indicate states that apply generally to the processor rather than Execution of individual tasks. Protection Enable (PE): Enable/disable protected mode of operation. Monitor Coprocessor (MP): Only of interest when running programs from earlier machines on the x86; it relates to the presence of an arithmetic coprocessor. Emulation (EM): Set when the processor does not have a floating-point unit, and causes an interrupt when an attempt is made to execute floating-point instructions. Task Switched (TS): Indicates that the processor has switched tasks.

Extension Numeric Type (ET): Not used on the Pentium and later machines; used to indicate support of math coprocessor instructions on earlier machines. Error (NE): Enables the standard mechanism for reporting floating- point errors on external bus lines. Write Protect (WP): When this bit is clear, read-only user-level pages can be written by a supervisor process. This feature is useful for supporting process creation in some operating systems. Alignment Mask (AM): Enables/disables alignment checking. Not Write Through (NW): Selects mode of operation of the data cache. When this bit is set, the data cache is inhibited from cache write-through operations. Cache

Disable (CD): Enables/disables the internal cache fill mechanism. Paging (PG): Enables/disables paging. When paging is enabled, the CR2 and CR3 registers are valid. The CR2 register holds the 32-bit linear address of the last page accessed before a page fault interrupt. The leftmost 20 bits of CR3 hold the 20 most significant bits of the base address of the page directory; the remainder of the address contains zeros. Two bits of CR3 are used to drive pins that control the operation of an external cache. The page- level cache disable (PCD) enables or disables the external cache, and the page-level writes transparent (PWT) bit controls write through in the external cache. Nine additional control bits are defined in CR4: Virtual-8086

Mode Extension (VME): Enables support for the virtual interrupt flag in virtual-8086 mode. Protected-mode Time Stamp Disable (TSD): Disables the read from time stamp counter (RDTSC) instruction, which is used for debugging purposes. Debugging Page Virtual Interrupts (PVI): Enables support for the virtual interrupt flag in protected mode. Extensions (DE): Enables I/O breakpoints; this allows the processor to interrupt on I/O reads and writes. Size Extensions (PSE): Enables large page sizes (2 or 4-MByte pages) when set; restricts pages to 4 KBytes when clear. Physical Machine

Address Extension (PAE): Enables address lines A35 through A32 whenever a special new addressing mode, controlled by the PSE, is enabled. Check Enable (MCE): Enables the machine check interrupt, which occurs when a data parity error occurs during a read bus cycle or when a bus cycle is not successfully completed. + When paging is enabled, the CR2 and CR3 registers are valid. The CR2 register holds the 32bit linear address of the last page accessed before a page fault interrupt. The leftmost 20 bits of CR3 hold the 20 most significant bits of the base address of the page directory; the remainder of the address contains zeros. Two bits of CR3 are used to drive pins that control the operation of an external cache. The page-level cache disable (PCD) enables or disables the external cache, and the page-level writes transparent (PWT) bit controls write through in the external cache. Nine additional control bits are defined in CR4: Virtual-8086 Mode Extension (VME): Enables support for the virtual interrupt flag in virtual-

8086 mode. Protected-mode Virtual Interrupts (PVI): Enables support for the virtual interrupt flag in protected mode. Time Stamp Disable (TSD): Disables the read from time stamp counter (RDTSC) instruction, which is used for debugging purposes. Debugging Extensions (DE): Enables I/O breakpoints; this allows the processor to interrupt on I/O reads and writes. Page Size Extensions (PSE): Enables large page sizes (2 or 4-MByte pages) when set; restricts pages to 4 KBytes when clear. Physical

Address Extension (PAE): Enables address lines A35 through A32 whenever a special new addressing mode, controlled by the PSE, is enabled. Machine Check Enable (MCE): Enables the machine check interrupt, which occurs when a data parity error occurs during a read bus cycle or when a bus cycle is not successfully completed. Page Global Enable (PGE): Enables the use of global pages. When PGE =1 and a task switch is performed, all of the TLB entries are flushed with the exception of those marked global. Performance Counter Enable (PCE): Enables the execution of the RDPMC (read performance counter) instruction at any privilege level. Two performance counters are used to measure the duration of a specific event type and the number of occurrences of a specific event type. Mapping of MMX Registers to Floating-Point Registers

+ Recall from Section 10.3 that the x86 MMX capability makes use of several 64-bit data types. The MMX instructions make use of 3-bit register address fields, so that eight MMX registers are supported. In fact, the processor does not include specific MMX registers. Rather, the processor uses an aliasing technique (Figure 14.24). The existing floating-point registers are used to store MMX values. Specifically, the low-order 64 bits (mantissa) of each floating-point register are used to form the eight MMX registers. Thus, the older 32-bit x86 architecture is easily extended to support the MMX capability. Some key characteristics of the MMX use of these registers are as follows: Recall that the floating-point registers are treated as a stack for floating-point operations. For MMX operations, these same registers are accessed directly. The first time that an MMX instruction is executed after any floating-point operations, the FP tag word is marked valid. This reflects the change from stack operation to direct register addressing.

The EMMS (Empty MMX State) instruction sets bits of the FP tag word to indicate that all registers are empty. It is important that the programmer insert this instruction at the end of an MMX code block so that subsequent floating- point operations function properly. When a value is written to an MMX register, bits [79:64] of the corresponding FP register (sign and exponent bits) are set to all ones. This sets the value in the FP register to NaN (not a number) or infinity when viewed as a floating- point value. This ensures that an MMX data value will not look like a valid floating-point value. + Interrupt Processing Interrupts and Exceptions Interrupts Generated by a signal from hardware and it may occur at random times during the execution of a program

Maskable -- Received on the processors INTR pin. The processor does not recognize a maskable interrupt unless the interrupt enable flag (IF) is set. Nonmaskable -- Received on the processors NMI pin. Recognition of such interrupts cannot be prevented. Exceptions Generated from software and is provoked by the execution of an instruction Processor detected -- Results when the processor encounters an error while attempting to execute an instruction. Programmed -- These are instructions that generate an exception (e.g., INTO, INT3, INT, and BOUND). Interrupt vector table Every type of interrupt is assigned a number

Number is used to index into the interrupt vector table. Table 14.3 x86 Exception and Interrupt Vector Table Unshaded: exceptions Shaded: interrupts + The ARM Processor ARM is primarily a RISC system with the following attributes: Moderate array of uniform registers

A load/store model of data processing in which operations only perform on operands in registers and not directly in memory A uniform fixed-length instruction of 32 bits for the standard set and 16 bits for the Thumb instruction set Separate arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and shifter units A small number of addressing modes with all load/store addresses determined from registers and instruction fields Auto-increment and auto-decrement addressing modes are used to improve the operation of program loops

Conditional execution of instructions minimizes the need for conditional branch instructions, thereby improving pipeline efficiency, because pipeline flushing is reduced + Simplified ARM Organization Processor Modes ARM architecture supports seven execution modes Remaining six execution modes are referred to as privileged

modes These modes are used to run system software Most application programs execute in user mode While the processor is in user mode the program being executed is unable to access protected system resources or to change mode, other than by causing an exception to occur Advantages to defining so many different privileged modes

The OS can tailor the use of system software to a variety of circumstances Certain registers are dedicated for use for each of the privileged modes, allows swifter changes in context Exception Modes Have full access to system resources and can change modes freely Exception modes: Supervisor mode Abort mode Undefined mode

Fast interrupt mode Interrupt mode Entered when specific exceptions occur System mode: Not entered by any exception and uses the same registers available in User mode Is used for running certain privileged operating system tasks

May be interrupted by any of the five exception categories Figure 14.26 ARM Register Organization Format of ARM CPSR and SPSR Table 14.4 ARM Interrupt Vector + Summary Processor Structure and

Function Chapter 14 Processor organization Register organization Instruction pipelining Pipelining strategy

Pipeline performance User-visible registers Pipeline hazards Control and status registers Dealing with branches Intel 80486 pipelining

Instruction cycle The indirect cycle Data flow The Arm processor Processor organization Processor modes The x86 processor family

Register organization Register organization Interrupt processing Interrupt processing

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Affective Assessment Assessment of Dispositions Affective Learning Targets

    Affective Assessment Assessment of Dispositions Affective Learning Targets

    Affective Assessment Assessment of Dispositions Affective Learning Targets Attitudes Interests Values Opinions Preferences Motivation Academic Self-Concept Self-Esteem Locus of Control Social Relationships Emotional Development Altruism Classroom Environment Moral Development Attitude Assessment Positive attitudes toward: learning school subject areas teachers working...
  • Chapter 6 Proportions and Similarity

    Chapter 6 Proportions and Similarity

    Chapter 6 Proportions and Similarity Ananth Dandibhotla, William Chen, Alden Ford, William Gulian Proportion - An equality statement with 2 ratios Cross Products - a*d and b*c, in a/b = c/d Similar Polygons - Polygons with the same shape Scale...
  • Recombinant DNA Technology - Santa Monica College

    Recombinant DNA Technology - Santa Monica College

    Recombinant DNA Technology Methods for Isolating, Amplifying and Studying Specific DNA Sequences * * * * * * * Transgenic Plants Bt Corn produces its own pesticide "Golden" rice with beta-carotene and extra iron Round Up Ready Soybeans are resistant...
  • Eft Základní Manuál

    Eft Základní Manuál

    Bod na temeni hlavy 2. vnitřní strana obočí 3. vedle oka na spánku 4. pod středem oka 5. pod nosem 6. brada - důlek mezi dolním rtem a bradou 7. pod vnitřním okrajem klíční kosti 8. pod paží Body na...
  • Nuclear / Subatomic Physics

    Nuclear / Subatomic Physics

    Nuclear / Subatomic Physics Physics - Chapter 25 (Holt) Nuclear physics deals with how the nucleus of an atom changes, and the conversion of a small amount of mass into a large amount of energy, in a short period of...
  • RBC - Beedie School of Business

    RBC - Beedie School of Business

    Canadian Banking Industry & Derivatives Edwin Cheung Isaac Schweigert Sharan Brar Tolek Strukoff
  • PowerPoint-Präsentation

    PowerPoint-Präsentation

    The most importantionpumpsin the nature are theATPase. We find them in every living cell from the bacteria up to the human beiing. The proton pumpingATPase are the main actors in metabolism : they build up aproton gradiantbetween the different compartments...
  • Training Objectives  Obtain knowledge of the ITIL terminology,

    Training Objectives Obtain knowledge of the ITIL terminology,

    ITIL framework describes the "what" of a service, not the "how" In 1983 there was a 10 week war between Argentina and the UK over territories in the South Atlantic. The conflict was a logistical nightmare and led the government...