13.2 Feudalism in Europe

13.2 Feudalism in Europe

13.2 Feudalism in Europe Feudalism, a political and economic system based on landholding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe. Invaders Attack Western Europe The Vikings Invade from the North

Warlike Vikings raid Europe from ScandinaviaDenmark, Norway, Sweden Viking long ships sail in shallow water, allowing raids inland Eventually, many Vikings adopt Christianity and become farmers A sketch of a Viking longboat

Invaders Attack Western Europe Magyars and Muslims Attack from the East and South

Magyars (Hungarian nomads) invade western Europe in late 800s Muslims strike north from Africa, attacking through Italy and Spain Viking, Magyar, Muslim invasions cause widespread disorder, suffering

A New Social Order: Feudalism Feudalism Structures Society 850 to 950, feudalism emerges political system based on land control A lord (landowner) gives fiefs (land grants) in exchange for services

Vassalspeople who receive fiefs become powerful landholders Europe 800 AD Europe 900 AD A New Social Order:

Feudalism The Feudal Pyramid

Power in feudal system much like a pyramid, with king at the top Kings served by nobles who are served by knights; peasants at bottom Knightshorsemendefend their lords land in exchange for fiefs A New Social Order: Feudalism

Social Classes Are Well Defined Medieval feudal system classifies people into three social groups

those who fight: nobles and knights those who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of the Church those who work: peasants

Social class is usually inherited; majority of people are peasants Most peasants are serfspeople lawfully bound to place of birth Serfs arent slaves, but what they produce belongs to their lord Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism

The Lords Estate The lords estate, a manor, has an economic system (manor system)

Serfs and free peasants maintain the lords estate, give grain The lord provides housing, farmland, protection from bandits Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism A Self-Contained World

Medieval manors include lords house, church, workshops, village Manors cover a few square miles of land, are largely self-sufficient Medieval castle and manor

house Medieval Mill Serfs House Croxdale Hall, England Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism

The Harshness of Manor Life

Peasants pay taxes to use mill and bakery; pay a tithe to priest Tithea church taxis equal to one-tenth of a peasants income Serfs live in crowded cottages with dirt floors, straw

for beds Daily grind of raising crops, livestock; feeding and clothing family Poor diet, illness, malnutrition make life expectancy 35 years Serfs generally accept their lives as part of Gods plan

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