19th century Imperialism - Coach J's History Class

19th century Imperialism - Coach J's History Class

19th Century Imperialism: Asia India: Jewel in the Crown India: Jewel in the

Crown 1750s Mughal Empire weakens and British East India Company defeats Indian troops British East India Company

rules India until 1858 India: Jewel in the Crown Company has its own army led by British officers Army is staffed

by sepoys: Indian soldiers Discussion Question: Why might this be a problem for the British?

India: Jewel in the Crown Why is India Britains most valuable colony (the brightest jewel in the crown!)? Raw materials New markets Human resources; 300 million

people! India: Jewel in the Crown Indians forced to produce raw materials for British; Forced to buy British goods Indian competition with British

goods was prohibited Positive Impact of Colonization: Modernization! Worlds 3rd largest railroad, modern road network, telegraph and telephone lines, dams,

bridges, irrigation canals Positive Impact of Colonization: Sanitation and public health improved Schools and colleges were founded (but English language & Western customs taught)

Literacy rates increased Negative Impact of Colonization: British held political and economic power Restricted Indian-owned industries

Cash crops result in loss of selfsufficiency & famine Negative Impact of Colonization Indian culture disrupted by missionaries and racist attitudes Indians treated as 2nd class

citizens Negative Impact of Colonization It is the consciousness of the inherent superiority of the European which has won for us India. However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank

we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer. --Lord Kitchener Discussion Question: Have you ever had anyone who disrespected your culture in some way? (your religion,

language, beliefs, etc) What did they do and how did you react? The Sepoy Rebellion Cultural Conflict: New rifle cartridges being used by the Sepoys were made of animal fat

To use the cartridges the soldiers had to bite off both ends OUTRAGE! Why? The Sepoy Rebellion The Sepoy Rebellion The Sepoys refused & rebelled against the British

British eventually put down rebellion The Sepoy Rebellion In 1858 India was placed under the direct

control of the British government The Sepoy Rebellion Queen Victoria of England was given title Empress of

India Nationalism Rises In 1800s nationalist movement begins Indians resent being 2nd class citizens in their own country Indian National Congress forms; calls for self-government

But independence wont happen until 1947! China: Another Jewel Discussion Question: Have you ever wanted to trade

someone for something they had that you wantedbut they didnt want anything you had to offer them? What did you do? China & the West In the late 18th century,

China is ruled by an emperor under the Qing Dynasty. China & the West China has chosen isolation No interaction with western powers

China is strong politically because it is largely selfsufficient The Tea-Opium Connection China has little interest in trading with the West, but High demand for tea

& silk in Great Britain at this time The Tea-Opium Connection The Chinese DO NOT want to trade with GB, nor do they want manufactured goods from GB

Restrict trade with the British Only allowed to use one Chinese port The Tea-Opium Connection British were determined to find a product

that the Chinese would buy in large quantities The Tea-Opium Connection Product? OPIUM! Great Britain

floods China with opium from India (Why India?) 1835 12 million Chinese addicted The Opium War

The Qing emperor demands the trade stop, but British refused Results in The Opium War GB crushed outdated Chinese forces The Opium War NANKING TREATY OF 1842:

The Chinese were forced to: Open new ports Legalize the opium trade Give Hong Kong to GB Accept extraterritoriality The Opium War Extraterritoriality: British citizens living in China

were not subject to Chinese laws or courts Foreign Influence Grows Chinas population booms from 1790-1850 Hunger widespread

Sparks Taiping Rebellion! Foreign Influence Grows Massive peasant army takes control over large areas of China Eventually defeated by Qing troops and outside forces BUT

Foreign Influence Grows Other countries took advantage of internal unrest and attacked Through treaties, European countries & Japan gain a

sphere of influence in China Foreign Influence Grows US feared China would be colonized by Europeans Encouraged the adoption of the

Open Door Policy Foreign Influence Grows Open Door Policy: All countries were given equal access to trade in all regions of China

Led to increasing unrest among the Chinese Foreign Influence Grows Another rebellion! Boxer Rebellion: Campaign against imperial rule and foreign

privilege Rebellion fails, but Chinese nationalism forces changes in China Japan: A Unique Discussion Question:

Have you ever been bullied by someone who threatened to do something to you if you didnt do what they wanted? What did you do? Japan: Victim Japan closed to European influence

since 1600s Commodore Perry sent to Japan by U.S. President to demand trade rights Gives ultimatum will return in 1 year Japan: Victim Japan forced to

sign Treaty of Kanagawa US gets open trade with Japan Japanese are angry shogun gave in to foreigners demands Japan: Aggressor Shogun replaced by a young emperor,

Mutsuhito Meiji Era Meiji means enlightened rule Japan decides to modernize to save culture! Japan: Aggressor Studied & adopted Western

ways, including industrialization By 1890, Japan had a modern economy & was the strongest military power in Asia

Japan: Aggressor Wanted to expand their empire to show they were a powerful nation Japan attacked China & Russia! Takes Taiwan, Pescadores Islands, Manchuria & Korea Japan: Aggressor

1910 Japan officially controlled Korea Banned teaching of Korean Koreans forced to take Japanese names Farmers forced off lands; businesses handed over to Japanese

Imperialism in Southeast Asia Europeans in SE Asia Dutch ruled whole island chain of Indonesia, called the Dutch East Indies

British ruled in Burma (modern Myanmar) & Malaysia French ruled directly in Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, & Vietnam) The U.S. in SE Asia Spanish rule in Philippines until

U.S. wins SpanishAmerican War U.S. promised to return Philippines to nationalists, but What does this Mean? Tensions caused by the competition for colonies was

one of the underlying causes of World War I

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