21_B4_U04A

21_B4_U04A

21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 4: Text A How to Become Gifted Unit 4: Text A Lead-in Activities Text Organization Reading & Writing Skills Language Points Guided Practice Assignment How to Become Gifted

Lead-in Activities Are you gifted by nature? If not, do you think you can become a gifted one? What do you think of expectations? Whatre your parents expectation on you? How about your teachers? Do their expectations play a key role in your upbringing? Text Organization The Structure of Text A I. A class of students of average intelligence labeled as gifted perform better in their work.

Paras. 1-9 II. A similar experiment on mice shows the same effects Paras. 10-11 III. Effects of labeling negative. We should and use it carefully. can be positive and understand its power Paras. 12-17 Reading & Writing Skills 1) Writing skill A summary is a short piece of writing which presents

the most important ideas in a longer piece of writing. For example, an essay of 1,000 words such as Text A might be summarized in a paragraph of 100 to 150 words. Good summaries are concise, representing the ideas in the original in as few words as possible. Generally, a summary will not include any words quoted from the original; all the ideas should be given in your own words. Reading & Writing Skills 2) Reading skill Prose writing may be divided into four basic types: narration, description, exposition, and argumentation. This general division is based on the effect the writing is supposed to have on its readers.

Language Points Text A How to Become Gifted Language Points How to Become Gifted Julius and Barbara Fast 1 In a study of educational techniques, a teacher was told that her newclass were all gifted children. You should get above-average results from them, she was advised, and by the end of the term she was getting just that, better than average work.

2 The remarkable thing about it all was that in reality the class was not unusual. They were just an average group of students with the IQs within the normal range. The teacher had been deceived about their potential. Language Points 3 This study uncovered many answers to many questions about teaching and children, but it left even more questions unanswered. One point it did make with unusual clarity is that a child will usually live up to a teachers expectations when the child believes those expectations are honest. 4 An unanswered question was: In what way did the teacher communicate to the students that they were special and could do superior work? She didn't tell them that in so many words, but obviously something about her attitude convinced the students that they were gifted.

Language Points 5 Further studies showed that the special something in the teachers attitude was, in part, the type of work she gave the class, and in part how she presented it. But the strongest something was the teacher herself and her attitude toward the class and toward their ability. 6 There was an extra amount of confidence and interest in her voice that said, Youre bright children. There was a constant reassuring tone that told them they would do well, very well.

The children picked up these signals and reacted positively to them . Language Points 7 When a students work did not measure up to the teachers expectations, as often happened, the students was not treated with disappointment, anger, or annoyance. Instead, the teacher assumed that this was an exception, an accident, a bad day, a momentary slip and the student believed her and felt reassured. The next time around, he tried harder, determined to live up to what the teacher knew he could do. Language Points 8

The exact part of communication that tells a child, I expect the best, is difficult to pinpoint. In part it consists of a level tone showing assurance, a lack of verbal impatience, an absence of negative qualities such as irony, put-downs, and irritation. The teacher who expects the best asks her questions with conviction, knowing the answers she gets will be right, and the child picks up that conviction. 9 Most of this is transmitted through the voice, but a surprising amount is in the attitude, in touch, and in facial expression. Language Points

10 An experiment similar to the one done with gifted children was done with gifted mice. A scientist was given a group of ordinary mice, but told that they were a special breed, trained to run a maze in record time. Working with these mice, the scientist found that they did learn faster than other mice and did run the maze more quickly. Language Points 11 But mice know nothing of our language. How was the scientist able to communicate his expectations to them? An examination of all the variables in the test concluded that the unusually good results were due to the way he had handled the mice, the way he talked to them and the tone, the confidence, the reassurance, and the certainty in his voice. They absorbed all the messages and performed accordingly!

Language Points 12 In a broader view of both these experiments, the teacher and the scientist used a principle common to all societies at all levels the principle of labeling. All our expectations are prejudiced, and we have very different expectations for different people, even on a national level. We think of people in terms of national characteristics. We expect Americans to be greedy, after the big buck, and we label them that way in our minds. We label Germans neat and orderly, English cold, distant, and reserved, Italians emotional, Japanese polite and so it goes. We pin a very narrow label on a very broad, far from homogeneous group. We do it on racial levels too. Blacks are musical, Indians are stoic, Orientals inscrutable. We even label the sexes men are aggressive, women passive. Language Points

13 On a family basis, the labels are sometimes attached by the neighbors. Those Joneses are trash always on welfare. Or the label may be attached by the family itself. We Smiths would rather go hungry than ask for government help! The Smith boy, growing up with this label of awesome independence, lives up to it as readily as the Jones girl lives up to her label. They all think were trash? Ill act like trash! Language Points 14 The label may be less inclusive, even sexist. One family might say proudly, The men in our family are always professionals. When Bill, a son in this family, finds that carpentry is the work he loves best, he faces a family conflict and a conflict with himself. His inner strength may allow him to go through with his own desires and become a carpenter, but then he knows that he hasnt lived up to the family label and he goes through life with

a sense of guilt. He may even create his own label. Im a failure, really. It doesnt matter that Bill is a success in his field, that in time he owns his own business and makes more money than his brother Bob, who became a lawyer. Bill is still not a professional man, and as a result his inner label still reads failure. Language Points 15 Labeling within a family starts very early. Before the baby understands verbal language, he responds to body language and indirect communication. He senses the love in his parents voice before he understands the words, and he also senses the rejection, indifference, fear, or hostility, and he reacts to those emotions too. Language Points 16 If hes treated with love and gentleness, he responds with both emotions. Later, when he understands speech, he accepts his label.

Jimmy is the nice one in the family, or Sally, whos been a difficult baby, earns the label of troublemaker. Each child, along with his given name, picks up a label. Shes the clever one. Hes the pushy one. Norman is always late. Betty is so hard to love. Barbara is cold. Jack is wild. Natalie is sweet, and so on. The labels may reflect reality. Natalie may be sweet, but as often as not the reality has been imposed on the child by the label. If Natalie hears that she is sweet often enough, she begins to act sweet. You tend to live up to your label Language Points 17 In the same way, the students in the teaching experiment were labeled bright, and they managed to be bright, to work beyond their ordinary ability. gifted

a. very intelligent or talented; more intelligent than average, esp. used of children Examples: Even gifted children fail to progress without good teaching. She is gifted she is a wonderful athlete, she writes beautifully and plays the guitar and so on. deceive deliberately mislead somebody (about something) Example: Translate Translate The leader had been deceived

performance. about their Key He deceived her into thinking he could drive a car. uncover to remove the thing that covers something else; to find out about something, esp. what has been kept a secret. Examples: Cf. uncover and discover uncover

Diggingmeans in herto garden she about uncovered a hoard of what gold find out something, esp. th dating back to the

9 century. has been kept a secret. discover These reasons canfind easily be uncovered means to out about somethingwith thatlittle one inquiry. did not know about before and one finds it either by or because he has been looking for it.

accident Gravity was discovered by Newton when an apple fell on his head. The boss discovered him stealing money. make a point express an idea Examples: This is the first point I want to make . You made some interesting points in your speech. live up to (also measure up to) to keep to the high standards of Exercises:

His work lived up to his reputation. He lives up to his income. Did the film live up to your expectations?

communicate sth to (sb or sth) make something known; convey something Examples: This poem communicates the authors despair. Writers communicate their ideas to the readers by writing. superior good or better in quality or value Example:

Translate This western restaurant is superior to the one we went to last week. Key This machine is superior in many respects to that. in part to a certain extent; partly Example:

His success was due in part to luck. The children picked up these signals and reacted positively to them. Paraphrase : the children got the information ( conveyed by the teachers voice and tone) into their minds and performed well in response to this information. consists of be composed of, be made up of Translation: 1) This is a mixture consists of flour and water. .

2) . The committee consists of ten members. conviction firm opinion or belief Examples Its my conviction that complacency is at the root of our troubles. Do you always act in accordance with your convictions. convictions

In record time in the shortest time record best performance or highest or lowest level ever reached, esp. in sport Examples: Unemployment was at a record high. The bank rate was increased to a record 8%. A record number of people attended the concert due to caused by; because of Examples:

He was late due to/owing to the very heavy traffic. Accidents due to driving at high speed were very common that weekend. It is generally considered that due to is a synonym for o wing to .However, they are used differently. Due to can be used immediately after a noun. due to caused by; because of It is generally considered that due to is a synonym for

owing to .However, they are used differently. Due to can be used immediately after a noun. accordingly in a manner that is appropriate to the particular circumstances Examples: He had loved her and had been, accordingly, good to her. When we receive your instructions we shall act accordingly. In terms of with regard to the particular aspect specified; as regards Examples:

Think of it in terms of an investment. The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage. would rather than more willingly, = would soonerrather would as soon as Exercises: 1. I would rather you ________________ here. A. remained B. would remain C. had remained D. remain 2. I would sooner ___ at once than ____ in this agony A. died, lived B. dying, living C. die, living D. die, live 3. I would just as soon ____ at home as _____. A. staying, go B. stay, go C. stay, going D. to stay, to go inclusive including sth.; including much or all

Example: The monthly rent is 500 yuan inclusive of everything. go through with to complete; carry out; Exercises: Do you intend to go through with this wedding? I cant go through with this performance, Im so nervous.

I will go through with my plan whatever the opposition? a sense of guilt Exercises: a sense of honour a sense of duty/ responsibility

a man of sense a sense of locality/direction good sense in time after a certain amount of time Examples: In time youll forget him.

I will see him in time. She will be back in time to prepare dinner. , read Translation: 1) The sign reads Stop. 2) The book reads well.

3) The rule reads in two ways. difficult not easy to please or satisfy; unwilling to co-operate Examples: a difficult boy a difficult customer a difficult boss

Dont be difficult, just lend us the money. , . pushy bossy nosy , airy cranky

as often as not fairly often; very frequently Examples: As often as not the buses are late on foggy days. In the evening, as often as not, we sit down to watch our favorite programs. Guided Practice

Vocabulary Cloze Translation Structure Writing Guided Practice Vocabulary Ex. IV Ex. V

Vocabulary VI : Ex. VI, p. 114 Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily

superior breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 1. Even though animals within a _______ breed may look similar to us humans, they probably look unique to each other. 2. Students have different individual abilities and potentials,and accordingly .

therefore should be taught _____________ Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily superior

breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 3. Many Americans would deny the existence of a single American cu racial lture partly because there is such a ________ diversity in the coun ty. 4. Preadolescent ( ) groups are homogeneous _____________ ; that is,

members are usually of the same sex and come from the same nei ghborhood. Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily

superior breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 5. The travel agency will make every arrangement for your trip and th inclusiveexpense are estimated at $300. e __________ welfare 6. All developed nations maintain a variety of social _________ progr

ams to help unemployed or underemployed people ro function mo re fully in society. Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily

superior breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 7. Lying is defined as _________ deceiving someone about certain information. irritation my boss showed was simply due to my failure to 8. The ___________ make a favorable comment on his management.

Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily superior breed homogeneous

inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 9. The ____________ variables that educational psychologists have found to be important in classroom teaching include the time teachers allocate to instruction, the amount of content they cover, the percent of time that students are engaged in learning, and so on. 10. The Austrian physician and founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, used his psychotherapy to ________ uncover painful and forgotten memories in his patients.

Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily superior breed

homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference irony is the suggestion, put forward with 11.An instance of _______ apparent seriousness by the English satirist Jonathan Swift in his A Modest Proposal, that the poor people of Ireland should rid themselves of poverty by selling their children to the rich to eat. 12. Human learning and memory have been studied mostly with verbal materials (such as word lists and stories) or with tasks _______

requiting motor skills (such as learning to type or to play an instrument). Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily

superior breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference readily learn to walk on their own when they are 13.Babies will _______ offered a reward. 14. When depressed, these patients experience painful sadness, indifference to things that used to bring negative thinking, and ______________

them happiness. Vocabulary IV. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. deceive irony certainty welfare uncover irritation accordingly readily superior

breed homogeneous inclusive verbal variable racial indifference 15.The probability of an outcome is represented by a number between certainty that an event 0 and 1, with probability 0 indicating ____________ certainty that it will will not occur and probability 1 indicating __________ occur. 16. IQ scores may vary according to testing conditions, and thus it is

advisable to understand results of the tests as falling within a superior certain range, such as average or _________. Vocabulary VI : Ex. V, p. 117 Vocabulary V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. in reality live/measure up to in part

in terms of consist of go through with due to as often as not 1. The major method of instruction for schools of the United States and many other countries stresses the educational development in terms of of the child individual needs and interests.

2. The explosion in use and popularity of the Internet in the 1990s is due to most likely he World Wide Web. Vocabulary V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. in reality live/measure up to in part in terms of

consist of go through with due to as often as not 3. A quality control inspector is responsible for making sure that measures/lives up to the specified standard every product ______________________ before it goes into circulation. 4. If you do what you are really interested in and try hard, you'll find, as often as not that you are living with contentment. ____________________

Vocabulary V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. in reality live/measure up to in part in terms of consist of go through with due to

as often as not 5. The Greek philosopher Socrates was also a great teacher, whose method __________________ asking questions that forced his consisted of students to think deeply about the meaning of life, truth, and justice. 6. His plan is an ambitious one, and I doubt whether he will really go through with it. _________________ Vocabulary V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.

in reality live/measure up to in part in terms of consist of go through with due to as often as not

7. The secretary general, like the rest of the UN staff, is supposed to in reality be independent, but _______________, he must rely on member countries, especially the five permanent Security Council members, to get anything done. 8. Its been argued that the problems with teaching have been in part brought about ________________ by inadequate facilities. Cloze IV : Ex. X, p. 120 Cloze

IX. Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. A recent educational experiment showed that the difference between gifted children and regular ones may have as much as to do with 1)____ as with intelligence. An elementary school teacher was 2)____ into thinking that her students were above average in intelligence. She then 3)____ to get

them to do outstanding work, even 1. A) inspections B) expectations C) impatience D) reassurance 2. A) told C) lied B)asked D)deceived 3. A) managed B) offered C) asked D) tried

Cloze though their true IQs were well within the normal range. It seems that her belief in her students intelligence was enough to turn them 4)____ better learners. Its difficult to 5)____exactly how such beliefs are expressed. It 6)____have to do with how a teacher talks to the class: many positive, supportive expressions and few expressions of impatience, 4. A) from B) to

C) alongside D) into 5. A) imprint B) pinpoint C) go through D) go through with 6. A) may B) can C) should D) ought to Cloze annoyance, or 7)____. Non-verbal communication, including 8)____ expressions, probably plays a role too. But one thing is clear: labels

and expectations 9)____ influence results. 7. A) surprise B) troublemaking C) irritation D) irony 8. A) facial B) variable C) suggestive D) emotional 9. A) certainly B) accordingly C) indifferently D) strongly

Cloze Outside of the classroom, labeling can, as 10)____ as not, have a negative effect. The labels we put on different social groups are usually not 11)____. In fact, they are often sexist or racist. Of 12)____ , there is good and bad in all kinds of people. 10. A) often B) quickly C) always D) thoroughly 11. A) indifferent B) inclusive

C) real D) incredible 12. A) certainty B) course C) reassurance D) age Cloze But we 13)____to accept some ideas about certain groups more readily than about others. The school experiment shows that such labels have a 14)____ deal of power. But when labels are unfair and negative they can be very 15)____.

13. A) tend B) hope C) offer D) intend 14. A) large B) wonderful C) great D) ironic 15. A) variable B) damaging C) annoying D) irritable Translation

Translation Ex. XI Ex. XII Translation IV : Ex. XI, p. 121 Translation English to Chinese XI. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. When a student's work did not measure up to the teacher's expectations, as often happened, the student was not treated with disappointment, anger, or annoyance.

Translation English to Chinese Instead, the teacher assumed that this was an exception, an accident, a bad day, a momentary slip and the student believed her and felt reassured. The next time around, he tried harder, determined to live up to what the teacher knew he could to. Translation English to Chinese The exact part of communication that tells a child, "I expect the best," is difficult to pinpoint. In part it consists of a level tone

showing assurance, a lack of verbal impatience, an absence of negative qualities such as irony, put-downs, and irritation. Translation English to Chinese The teacher who expects the best asks her questions with conviction, knowing the answers she gets will be right, and the child picks up that conviction.

Translation IV : Ex. XII, p. 121 Translation Chinese to English 1 only in terms of well-rounded enable to measure up to Schools should avoid deciding who are superior only in

terms of the students exam results and treating them accordingly. Instead, a good educational system should enable every student to measure up to good standards as well-rounded people. Translation Chinese to English 2 indifference to not readily available except during office hours busy academic research As often as not, when college students have questions

after class, their teachers are not readily available except during office hours. This is due to teachers busy academic research, rather than their indifference to the students. Translation Chinese to English 3 40 used to be labeled average live up to his expectations not show any verbal impatience This class consists of forty students, most of whom used to be labeled average in terms of English level. But as this

teacher has never shown any verbal impatience, the students have reacted positively to his teaching methods and lived up to his expectations. Translation Chinese to English 4 become increasingly demanding the diversity of students racial background the complexity of educational technologies Teaching is becoming increasingly demanding in the the United States, due in part to the diversity of students

racial background and the complexity of educational technologies that require additional training. Translation Chinese to English 5 are labeled in terms of national characteristics The English are, as often as not, labeled conservative. Obviously this label is prejudiced. In reality, Britain is not very different from other European countries in terms of national characteristics. They are polite, neat, orderly and confident.

Translation Chinese to English 6 a sense of guilt grow up with a strong desire for would rather than Some young people grow up with a strong desire for independence. They would rather try hard themselves to go through life than turn to their parents for help with a sense of guilt.

Translation Chinese to English 7 your friend treats you sincerely respond accordingly with irony Your friend treats you sincerely, so you should respond accordingly and mustnt deceive him or talk about his setbacks with irony. Translation Chinese to English 8

is due to go through with their reassurances The neighbors irritation/annoyance was due to the noise they made. However, because of their reassurances that they would stop working at night, they went through with the decoration of this apartment. Structured Writing IV : Ex. XIV, p. 123 Structured Writing

Structured Writing In the Reading Analysis we have read and evaluated three sample summaries. Now please write a paragraph of under 150 words summarizing the Text A from either Unit 1, Unit 2, or Unit 3. Your summary should accurately and concisely represent all of the important ideas in the text in your own words. Assignment 1. Review Text A 2. Do exercises: Structure (Ex.VIII,IX p.118)

Cloze (Ex. X, p. 120) Translation (Ex. XI & XII, p. 121)

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Open Source Software Support for the OpenMP Runtime

    Open Source Software Support for the OpenMP Runtime

    Collector interface or collector API was proposed by SUN as a white paper for tools committee of OpenMP ARB. Bi-directional: Communication between the OpenMP runtime library and performance tools. Scalable: Minimal overhead as Is a query and event notification based...
  • MBA 299 - Section Notes

    MBA 299 - Section Notes

    MBA 299 - Section Notes 4/25/03 Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley Rawley AGENDA Stackelberg duopoly Repeated games Problem set #3 and #4 STACKELBERG DUOPOLOY (I) Game Set-up Firm 1 moves first and chooses q1≥0 Firm 2 observes q1 and...
  • Data Compression - cs.ryerson.ca

    Data Compression - cs.ryerson.ca

    Data Compression I 6. Data Compression I - Copyright © Denis Hamelin - Ryerson University Differential Encoding Consider sequences of symbols S1, S2, S3 etc. where ...
  • Lecture 12 NP Class

    Lecture 12 NP Class

    Polynomial-time many-one reduction A < m B A set A in Σ* is said to be polynomial-time many-one reducible to B in Γ* if there exists a polynomial-time computable function f: Σ* → Γ* such that x ε A iff...
  • Pillars again - OVEC Social Studies Network

    Pillars again - OVEC Social Studies Network

    High School needs 4 Teams (one per DCC) Middle School needs 3 Teams (6,7,8) Elementary needs 6 Teams (K,1,2,3,4,5) Inside each "Team Folder" you will find a process, some notes to consider regarding potential revisions, and a paper template for...
  • NHS England Presentation Template - VISION UK

    NHS England Presentation Template - VISION UK

    With partners, NHS England has developed a new 'Accessible Information Standard'. The aim of the Standard is to make sure that people who have a disability or sensory loss get information in the right format for them, and any support...
  • Conventions of Epic Poetry An epic poem has…

    Conventions of Epic Poetry An epic poem has…

    Conventions of Epic Poetry An epic poem has… a hero who embodies national, cultural, or religious ideals a hero upon whose actions depends the fate of his people a course of action in which the hero performs great and difficult...
  • ELEMENTS THAT ARE NECESSARY IN KINDY PROGRAMMING   Links

    ELEMENTS THAT ARE NECESSARY IN KINDY PROGRAMMING Links

    ELEMENTS THAT ARE NECESSARY . IN . KINDY PROGRAMMING. Links to the EYLF - principles, practices and outcomes. Links to RE outcomes. Demonstration of an emerging curriculum (to reflect the outcomes trying to achieve) Responsive to children - ability and...