2.1 FACTORS AFFECTING THE TRAFFIC ... - training-ohs.com.au

2.1 FACTORS AFFECTING THE TRAFFIC ... - training-ohs.com.au


A Traffic Guidance Scheme is a diagram or sketch showing the physical arrangement of temporary traffic control signs and devices to warn traffic and guide it through, past or around a work area or temporary hazard. In deciding what measures will be taken to set out the Traffic Guidance Scheme to control traffic movements around or through the works, consideration must be given to prevailing site conditions, traffic volumes and work activities.

2.1.1 SITE CONDITIONS Site conditions that could affect the setting out of the Traffic Guidance Scheme may include: All weather conditions. Varying terrain. Varying road surfaces. All vehicle types. Rural, urban or residential localities.

2.1.1 SITE CONDITIONS Varying traffic volumes. All times of day. Varying road types. Congested urban environments. Low traffic rural areas. Off-road un-trafficked areas. 2.1.1 SITE CONDITIONS

Civil construction site. Buildings. Parking sites. Pedestrian areas. Road where civil construction work is conducted. 2.1.2 TRAFFIC VOLUMES AND WORK ACTIVITIES Other considerations include:

Is the road formation wide enough for the traffic and plant to manoeuvre safely? Can the shoulders be utilised to provide an additional traffic lane? What traffic density is expected? What delays in construction will traffic movements be likely to cause and vice versa? 2.1.2 TRAFFIC VOLUMES AND WORK ACTIVITIES

What percentage of traffic is composed of heavy vehicles? What is the shape and composition of the terrain? Are there crests, curves, rocky outcrops, black soil, or swampy ground? 2.1.2 TRAFFIC VOLUMES AND WORK

ACTIVITIES All of these factors will influence decisions on traffic provisions such as: Traffic flow (one-way or two-way). Diversions and detours. Travel speeds. Traffic guidance devices and the use of traffic controllers. The Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices Part 3 (MUTCD) (see AS1742.3 2009) also provides standard diagrams for traffic guidance schemes across a range

of work activities and worksites. 2.1.3 CALCULATION OF TRAVEL SPEED Temporary speed zones for traffic safety purposes are appropriate where the consequences of excessive speed are not apparent and motorists are unlikely to reduce speed voluntarily. Temporary speed zones may be used where one or more of the following

conditions exist: Sprayed seal works exceed 500m in length on high-volume roads. 2.1.3 CALCULATION OF TRAVEL SPEED Loose materials or stones generally larger than 10mm nominal size are present on the road surface. Dust or smoke may reduce visibility and cannot be controlled.

The standard of the pavement surface, or the vertical or horizontal road geometry at a worksite is reduced below that of the adjacent sections of road. The unobstructed clear width of the roadway is reduced by at least a half, on the approaches to the work area. 2.1.3 CALCULATION OF TRAVEL SPEED

Temporary speed limits are usually set at 40 km/h, 60 km/h or 80 km/h depending upon prevailing conditions and the normal speed limit that applies. The temporary speed limit should not be so low that a significant number of motorists will disregard it. Temporary speed restrictions must be implemented when the clearance of the work zone to traffic is less than 3 metres. This is to protect workers from oncoming or passing traffic and road users from hazards within the worksite.

2.1.3 CALCULATION OF TRAVEL SPEED Traffic controllers must only operate in an area where a 60 km/h maximum speed limit applies. If such a speed limit does not already exist at the site a temporary speed zone shall be established. 2.2 ENSURE ADHERENCE TO WORK SCHEDULE AND SITE COMMUNICATIONS When implementing the Traffic Management Plan and Traffic Guidance Scheme it is essential to ensure that workers know and

adhere to the work schedule and the signalling and communications requirements. The maximum acceptable traffic delays must also be recognised and followed. It is also important that all personnel/workers understand the common terminology used on construction sites. 2.2.1 DETERMINE THE WORK SCHEDULE A daily routine should be established, allocating specific tasks to workers so that: A supervisors role in this routine procedure is coordination, inspection and

correction. 2.2.2 WORKING WITH TRAFFIC DELAYS There may be occasions when there is no alternative to the complete closure of a road. Delays to traffic should be minimised with a desirable maximum delay no longer than 15 minutes. If the delay is expected to be longer, the method of working should be altered or a

detour or side track provided. 2.2.2 WORKING WITH TRAFFIC DELAYS If the delay is longer than 15 minutes because of an unexpected event, e.g. plant breakdown, the supervisor should inform the traffic controllers of the delay and should give an estimated time to be relayed to the public. If traffic queues become too long, consideration should be given to either finding a suitable

detour or otherwise re-routing traffic. 2.2.3 CIVIL CONSTRUCTION TERMINOLOGY In order to be able to communicate effectively with other personnel/workers on civil construction worksites, you will need to be familiar with common civil construction terminology. Many terms used on the worksite are specific to civil construction. However, civil construction terminology may vary

from site to site and from state to state. 2.2.3 CIVIL CONSTRUCTION TERMINOLOGY Ensure that you and other workers become familiar with the language used on your worksite, where it is essential for carrying out the tasks. If you have any questions, speak to your supervisor or experienced personnel/workers.

2.2.4 COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS Communication is the process of exchanging information. Because of the risks present in traffic management it is particularly important to have clear communication when discussing workplace activities. This ensures that all people know what they are required to do, when they need

to do it, and how they need to do it. 2.2.4 COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS It is therefore essential to be aware of all requirements for communications as outlined in worksite procedures and within the traffic management plan, and to apply them when carrying out your tasks. 2.2.4 COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS

Communications must include: Verbal instructions can be delivered via onsite meetings, toolbox talks, safety briefings, team meetings, two-way radios, and mobile phones. Fault reporting any faulty equipment, such as signs or devices out of place, damaged or missing should be reported immediately to the works manager.

2.2.4 COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS Other communication methods may include: Two-way radio. Hand signals. Mobile phone. Site-specific instructions. Written instructions. Instructions related to job/task. RADIO COMMUNICATION

Two-way radios are required at worksites where communication is required over long work distances or sight distances are limited, particularly for traffic controllers. If the work is to occur over a long period of time, the condition of the battery should be closely monitored. A shoulder strap attachment may be required to allow hands-free operation. RADIO COMMUNICATION The use of CB (citizen band) frequencies is not recommended as other operators using the same frequency may cause interference. Radios must not be used in the vicinity of blasting operations. SIGNALLING Standard hand signals are used on

construction sites where verbal communication is not possible, for example a signal person is used to give instructions to plant operators. SIGNALLING In addition to equipment such as signs, stop-slow bats and the other signalling devices, traffic controllers use hand signals to advise motorists to stop, slow down or proceed.

Gestures should be made clearly and with authority. During night operations a luminous wand is used. 2.3 SETTING OUT SIGNS AND DEVICES The Traffic Management Plan will show what signs and devices are required, where they are to be positioned and how they should be displayed. 2.3.1 PLANNED POSITIONING SEQUENCES Before work commences, signs and devices at the approaches to the work area should be erected in the following sequence:

2.3.1 PLANNED POSITIONING SEQUENCES Ensure conditions are met for: The type and size of the sign/device. Longitudinal distances between signs/devices. 2.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR POSITIONING AND DISPLAY The requirements for positioning and

display of traffic management signs include: Traffic management plan requirements. Visibility factors. Road authority requirements. 2.4.1 TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN REQUIREMENTS The Traffic Management Plan will outline where signs and devices should be positioned and displayed on each approach. This will ensure that: They are properly displayed and securely

mounted. They are within the line of sight of the intended road user. They cannot be obscured from view, either by vegetation or parked cars. They do not obscure other devices from the line of sight of the intended road user. They do not become a possible hazard to workers, pedestrians or vehicles. They do not deflect traffic into an

undesirable path. 2.4.2 VISIBILITY FACTORS When positioning signs and devices, be aware that their visibility can be affected by factors such as: The direction of the sunlight. Deep shade. Background conditions (including lighting). Oncoming headlights. These factors should be considered when signs

and devices are erected to ensure that they can be clearly seen at all times. 2.4.3 ROAD AUTHORITY REQUIREMENTS Ensure you position all signs and devices to comply with Road Authority requirements for: Orientation of signs. Clearance from the travelled path. Height above the travelled path. Mounting on posts if required.

The need to erect signs on both sides of the roadway on high-speed, high-volume roads, or on multilane roads or at curved alignments. Urban or rural applications. 2.5 LATERAL POSITIONING OF SIGNS AND DEVICES Road Authority requirements state that signs and devices should face towards approaching

traffic approximately at right angles to the line of sight from the driver to the sign. Generally signs and devices are placed on the left hand side of the road, at a distance that does not present a hazard to passing traffic. At curved alignments, the sign should be placed so it is approximately at right angles to the line of sight of an approaching motorist. 2.6 PROTECTING WORK CREW Signs and other traffic control devices such as tapers should be erected and removed in a logical order that gives the greatest protection to workers and road

users. Normally, the signs and devices should be erected in the following order: 2.6 PROTECTING WORK CREW A vehicle displaying a vehicle-mounted warning device should be used in advance of the taper position to alert road users and protect workers setting out or retrieving the taper devices. Signs and devices that are erected before

they are required should be covered prior to the commencement of work.

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