24. Victorian Context

24. Victorian Context

The Victorian Age (18301901) Sambourne House, London. The Victorian Age 1. Queen Victoria Victoria became queen at the age of 18; she was graceful and self-assured. Her reign was the longest in British history. Franz Xavier Winterhalter, The young Queen Victoria, 1842

Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 1. Queen Victoria In 1840 she married a German prince, Albert of Saxe-Coburg. They had nine children and their modest family life provided a model of respectability. Franz Xavier Winterhalter, The young Queen Victoria, 1842

During this time Britain changed dramatically. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 2. The growth of the British Empire British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection.

England grew to become the greatest nation on earth The sun never sets on EnglandThe sun never sets on England. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 2. The growth of the British Empire British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection. British Empire included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, and India.

Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 2. The growth of the British Empire British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection. Great Britain imported raw materials such as cotton and silk and exported finished goods to countries around the world. Only Connect ... New Directions

The Victorian Age 2. The growth of the British Empire British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection. By the mid-1800s, Great Britain was the largest exporter and importer of goods in the world. It was the primary manufacturer of goods and the wealthiest country in the Only Connect ... New Directions world.

The Victorian Age 2. The growth of the British Empire British Empire throughout the World, 19th century, Private Collection. Because of Englands success, the British felt it was their duty to bring English values, laws, customs, and religion to the savage races around the world. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age

3. An age of social and political reforms 1832: The First Reform Act granted the vote to almost all male members of middle-class. 1833: The Factory Act regulated child labour in factories. 1834: Poor Law Amendment established a system of workhouses for poor people. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 3. An age of social and political

reforms 1867: The Second Reform Act gave the vote to skilled working men. 1871: Trade Union Act legalised trades unions. 1884: The Third Reform Act granted the right to vote to all male householders. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 4. The womans question Womens suffrage did not happen until 1918.

Suffragettes The Rights of Women or Take Your Choice (1869) Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 5. Positive aspects of the age Industrial revolution: factory system emerged; for the first time in Britains history there

were more people who lived in cities than in the countryside. Workers in a Tobacco Factory Technological advances: introduction of steam hammers and locomotives; building of a network of railways. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 5. Positive aspects of the

age Economical progress: Britain became the greatest economical power in the world; in 1901 the Usa became the leader, but Britain remained the first in manufacturing. Workers in a Tobacco Factory Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 6. Crystal Palace

Crystal Palace was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851; it was destroyed by fire in 1936. The Crystal Palace Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 6. Crystal Palace It was made of iron and

glass, exhibited hydraulic presses, locomotives, machine tools, power looms, power reapers and steamboat engines. The Crystal Palace Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 6. Crystal Palace It had a political purpose

it showed British economic supremacy in the world. The Crystal Palace Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 7. Negative aspects of the age Pollution in towns due to factory activity. Homeless Boys (1880)

London in 1872 Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 7. Negative aspects of the age Lack of hygienic conditions: houses were overcrowded, most people lived in miserable conditions; poor houses shared water supplies. Homeless Boys (1880)

London in 1872 Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 8. The Great Stink Epidemics, like cholera, thyphoid, caused a high mortality in towns. They came to a peak in the Great Stink of 1858.

This expression was used to describe the terrible smell in London, coming from the Thames. The Miasmas, exhalations from decaying matter, poisoned the air. Caricature appearing on the magazine Punch in 1858

Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 9. The Victorian compromise The Victorians were great moralisers they supported: personal duty, hard work, decorum, respectability, chastity. W. H. Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853-4, London, Tate Britain.

Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 9. The Victorian compromise Victorian, synonym for prude, stood for extreme repression; even furniture legs had to be concealed under heavy cloth not to be suggestive.

New ideas were discussed & debated by a large part of society. W. H. Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853-4, London, Tate Britain. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 9. The Victorian compromise

The middle-class was obsessed with gentility, respectability, decorum. Respectability distinguished the middle from the lower class. John Lamb, Victorian family portrait, 1879. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 9. The Victorian

compromise Decorum meant: a.Victorian private lives were dominated by an authoritarian father. b.Women were subject to male authority; they were expected to marry and make home a refuge for their husbands. John Lamb, Victorian family portrait, 1879. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age

10. Key thinkers John Stuart Mill and his ideas based on Benthams Utilitarianism. John Stuart Mill Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 10. Key thinkers

Karl Marx and his studies about the harm caused by industrialism in mans life. Karl Marx Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 10. Key thinkers Charles Darwin and

the theory of natural selection. Charles Darwin Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 11. The rise of the novel There was a communion of interests and opinions between the writers and their readers. The Victorians were avid consumers of literature. They borrowed books from circulating libraries and read

various periodicals. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 11. The rise of the novel Novels made their first appearance in instalments on the pages of periodicals. The voice of the omniscient narrator provided a comment on the plot and erected a rigid barrier between right and wrong, light and darkness. Only Connect ... New Directions

The Victorian Age 11. The rise of the novel The setting chosen by most Victorian novelists was the town. Victorian writers concentrated on the creation of characters and achieved a deeper analysis of their inner life. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age

12. Poetry Alfred, Lord Tennyson: the most popular Victorian poet. He wrote narrative poems. Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, by George Frederic Watts (died 1904), given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1895. Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age

12. Poetry Robert Browning: he raised the dramatic monologue to new heights making it a vehicle for a deep psychological study. Robert Browning Only Connect ... New Directions The Victorian Age 12. Poetry

Elizabeth Barrett Browning: she wrote love sonnets valued for their lyric beauty. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Only Connect ... New Directions

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