3.3 Segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 1 Learning outcomes Making marketing decisions: segmentation, targeting and positioning What you need to know: The process and value of segmentation, targeting and positioning Influences on choosing a target market and positioning
AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 2 Starter How could a business divide up the UK market into groups with similar characteristics (segments)? For example, age. Why do you think it might be important for firms to segment their market and then aim at a clear target audience? Which target audience are the firms in the table aiming at? Produce a table like the one below and write a description of the target audience (customer profile). Product Cadbury Flake Nestle
Yorkie Calvin Klein CK One WKD Blue Baileys Market segment/ Target market AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 3
Key term MARKET SEGMENTATION The classification of customers or potential customers into groups or sub-groups (market segments), each of which responds differently to different products or marketing approaches The process of segmentation Segmentation methods include: Demographic segmentation Age (e.g. holidays/magazines) Gender (e.g. Perfume/sports)
Occupation Socio-economic group Households are characterised by the major earners job which therefore links to their interests, lifestyle and income level. (Also applicable to income segmentation) Discuss: 1.For each of the demographic segmentation types listed on the right state some products that are targeted in this way, for example, Baileys aimed at females. 2.Are there any problems with classifying market segments by using socio-economic groups? A Higher managerial or
professional B Intermediate managerial or professional C1 Supervisory, clerical, junior managers C2 Skilled manual workers D
Semi & Unskilled manual workers E Casual workers, pensioners, benefits Socio-economic group classification 5 The process of segmentation Income Certain goods/services are aimed at individuals with certain levels of disposable income. For example: Rolex, Porsche, Aldi, Lidl, Iceland. Geographical region Firms can look at where particular consumer types live, what the income
levels are like, whether it is rural or inner city. (e.g. Nightclubs/theatres/rambling) ACORN (A Classification Of Residential Neighbourhoods) is a system that segments markets according to a wide variety of types of households and the characteristics of the families that live in them. It can be done by post code and better informs businesses on where to set up and where to target certain marketing activities to be most cost effective. Also think about social class. 6 The process of segmentation Behavioural segmentation Consumers can be divided into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product. These may include: Lifestyle hobbies, tastes and interests all influence buying behaviour Level of brand loyalty
Benefits sought by consumers What are the looking for from the product? Why and when do they purchase it? Purchase occasion - When do people buy the product? Greeting card firms need to create more reasons to buy cards beyond established holidays and Kellogg's increased the number of occasions consumers are encouraged to use their product with their eating it twice a day diet. Frequency of usage - Are they early adopters who are willing to buy the product on release, for example, Apples loyal customers or those who queue at midnight when new games or consoles are released. Are the consumers heavy, medium or
light users? Used, for example, by cigarette companies or mobile phone operators. AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 7 What type of segmentation depends upon the business or the product clothing = gender and age Businesses will identify the market segment or segments relevant to their products and services. Most market segmentation combines different featues. Benefits of market segmentation Helps to better understand the companys target market including its characteristics, needs and wants and how to market a product (Newspapers)
Allows a firm to better design their marketing mix to increase sales and market share (Sky Living) Helps them to build a strong brand identity and establish loyalty Helps a firm to plan new suitable products to meet their chosen market segments AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 9 Difficulties with market segmentation Firms can find it difficult to identify the most important segments for a product. Constant research is needed to keep up to date with consumer tastes and anticipate consumer taste changes. Products may become too specific to one market segment not catering to the tastes of others thereby reducing sales.
Companies may ignore potentially lucrative segments. Firms may find it difficult to reach their chosen market segment, for example, younger audiences not reading as much physical print and streaming television and films online means avoiding traditional advertising channels. AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 10 Segmentation activity Market targeting
Market targeting Deciding the market segments the company will aim to sell their products/services to; known as their target market. - Concentrated marketing A product is aimed at a very well defined and specific market segment (niche). It allows firms to focus and avoids the need for mass production. - Differentiated marketing Targeting several different market segments with different products. - Undifferentiated marketing Targeting the whole mass market with one product. Product proliferation When a firm sell a range of products aimed at different markets. For example Volkswagen motor company owns a range of different brands including Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Seat, Skoda and Volkswagen. Market positioning Where a firms products/services are in a market in relation to its rivals. A firm will do this based on factors such as price, value, quality, product use, features, etc. It will aim to create a unique selling point (USP) Something that differentiates it from
its rivals to provide it with a sustainable competitive advantage. 12 Influences on choosing a target market and positioning: Mass and niche marketing Companies have two main options when deciding on a market position and who to aim at and that is whether to aim at a specific small market segment (niche marketing) or across all market segments (mass marketing). Niche marketing: when firms target a product or service at a small segment of a larger market. It allows firms to tailor their product/services to a particular type of customer and their tastes. With smaller consumer groups in a niche market, firms are able to build better, more direct relationships and get to know their wants and needs more specifically. For example, Hornby model railways, Porsche cars. However it does limit the potential sales and market size.
If larger rivals spot a successful niche they may decide to enter the market making competition more intense. AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 13 Niche marketing Advantages of niche marketing Lower levels of competition may result in high market share and possible
monopoly power. Possible to build intense customer loyalty. For example, Games Workshop. Firms are able to set up and operate on a smaller scale helping to keep costs lower and decrease risk. Niche market businesses can more easily differentiate themselves to create sustainable competitive advantage by tailoring their products/services to meet their consumers specific tastes. This will help to create a unique selling point (USP). Higher prices can be charged with this USP and higher added value. It is easier to design your marketing mix and target customers when you know the exact characteristics, needs and wants of your specific target market. Disadvantages of niche marketing
Unfortunately lower profits may be made as firms operate on smaller scales and cannot reduce their unit costs through economies of scale. New rivals entering the market will have a considerable impact particularly as the barriers to entry are relatively small. Larger rivals may enter the market if it become very profitable. Changing consumer tastes will have a considerable impact. 14 Vulnerable to changes in demand Mass marketing Mass marketing: a strategy of selling goods with mass appeal and promoting them to all types of customer. For example, Esso, BP, Shell, Heinz Baked beans, Hovis. Firms aim their products/services at all or most of the market to maximise their sales and profit potential.
The ultimate aim is to create a generic brand that is renowned for a particular product. For example, Cellotape, Post It, Hoover. However this approach provides the firm with less potential for targeting specific consumer groups and adapting their products to their tastes. This general approach prevents firms from focusing and tailoring their products enough to have truly high demand or intense customer loyalty. AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015
15 Mass marketing Advantages of mass marketing Large-scale production and economies of scale may be possible. Unit costs can be kept lower helping to push prices down. Higher sales, revenue and profit is possible. High barriers to entry may mean decreased competition for already established firms. These may include the high costs of set up, existing rivals brand loyalty, low prices or actions by rivals. Easier to fund research and development Brand awareness Disadvantages of mass marketing High costs as larger-scale operation and manufacture is needed to meet mass market demand. High fixed costs Products must appeal to a wide range of consumers so firms are unable to easily add value by tailoring products to consumers specific tastes. This results in lower prices having to be charged.
Consumer tastes change more quickly in mass markets and are harder to keep up to date with. More competition often from large international rivals who compete using lower prices. Changes in demand can lead to unused spare capacity which increases unit costs 16 Influences on choosing market positioning Key term: MARKET POSITIONING where your product or brand stands in relation to the products or brands of other businesses Key term: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE a benefit that allows a business to gain and retain more customers tan its competitors Market positioning attempts to influence the consumers view of a product or brand. It aims
to achieve a unique and beneficial perception of a product or brand in the consumer's mind, possibly enabling it to achieve a USP. Good market positioning means that consumers believe that they will receive benefits from buying the product; this makes it easier for the business to charge higher prices and introduce new variations. Exam-style question Use the Urban Outfitters case study activity [3.3]. 1. Urban outfitter uses market segmentation when planning its strategy and aims at 18-30 year olds with an alternative stylish image who desire exclusive fashion brands. Evaluate how useful effective market segmentation is in ensuring they are able to generate profits and continue their international growth. (16 marks) Exam tip: When analysing issues students should aim to use key connectives to build chains of analysis, including somewhere between 5 to 8 knock-on effects. These should fully explain the impact
of the point you have made on the business and any of its relevant stakeholders. Key connectives include: Therefore, this may lead to, resulting in, as a consequence, thus, etc. This means is a particularly important connectives that examiners want to see in students work. AQA A-level Business Hodder & Stoughton Limited 2015 22
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