37.1 The Circulatory System - Auburn High School

37.1 The Circulatory System - Auburn High School

Anatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory System and Blood I. Function of blood and circulatory system a. b. c. Distribute heat, food, and oxygen. Removal of waste. Regulation of H2O content. II. Components of Blood

a. Cellular Erythrocytes (RBCs) 2. Leukocytes (WBCs) 3. Thrombocytes (Platelets) Erythro = red Leuko = white Cyte = cell Thrombo = clot 1. b.

Non-cellular 4. Plasma Connected to our blood (vascular) system is the lymphatic system, a one-way system that returns excess fluid from tissues to the blood stream also helps fight infections. Blood Volume: 58%

plasma, 42% blood cells (primarily RBCs) Body volume = 5-6 liters; 9-12 pints (8% of body weight) Blood is sticky, thick (5 times as thick as water), salty taste, and ph=7.4 III. Origin of Blood Cells A. B. As a child: all bones produce blood cells. As an adult only: humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, scapula, clavicle, vertebrae,

ilia, and cranium. IV. Erythrocytes/RBCs No nucleus Life span = 120 days Small disc shape Carries O2 Surface is elastic so they can squeeze through capillaries.

V. Leukocytes/WBCs Nucleus Fights infection Phagocytes surround & engulf bacteria & viruses. CBC = complete blood count Elevated WBC count = infection VI. Plasma 92% H2O + salts (Na+, K+, Mg+, Cl-)

Proteins (fibrogenin, hormones, enzymes, vitamins) After a meal - nutrients in the plasma After exercise - in wastes in the plasma VII. Platelets Small, no nucleus, irregular shape. Initiate a blood clotting chain of reactions.

VIII. Blood Clotting/Coagulation/Homeostasis Small vessels constrict Platelets stick to surface of wound until plug is formed. IX. Blood Types Discovered by Karl Land Stemer 1900 A.

Genetics 3 Genes: A, B, O AA + AO A BB + BO B AB AB OO O X. Importance of Blood Typing 1. 2. 3. Blood transfusions if wrong, tiny blood clots throughout the body.

Legal-paternity cases determine who parents can or cant be (father) Rh factor A blood protein Rh+ - 85% Rh- - 15% - important to know in pregnancy. The Heart

Heart Structure I. Hollow muscular organ; sits about 2/3 to the left of the midsagittal plane. Have a set number of cells at birth only in size of cells. Enclosed in a pericardial sac (pericardium)

actually 2 membranes outer parietal and inner visceral between the two is pericardial fluid which prevents friction due to heartbeats. Muscle wall = myocardium striated, involuntary cells 4 chambers 1. 2. 3.

4. Top = atria receiving chambers Bottom = ventricles pumping chambers Right side = pulminary circulation Left side = systemic circulation Right side receives deoxygenated blood and pumps to the lungs then to the left side of the heart out to the body. II. Heart Valves

Right Right Left Left Atria Tricuspid valve Ventricle Atria

Semilunar valve Bicuspid valve Ventricle Right Ventricle Left Ventricle Semilunar valve

Pulmonary Artery Aorta * Bicuspid valve is much stronger than the tricuspid because the left ventricle exerts a greater force than the right. III. Blood Supply to the Heart Since

the heart is a muscle, it also needs blood, oxygen and nutrients. Coronary arteries supply myocardium with blood. If coronary artery is blockedmust bypass blockage. IV. Heart Conducting System 1. Specialized heart muscle cells in right atrium that set the pace of the heartbeat = pacemaker or SA node

V. 1. 2. 3. Control of the Heart Hormones thyroid, adrenal (increases heart rate) brought on by stress and fear. Nervous System variety of receptors cause nerves to release a variety of chemicals.

Chemical Influence Atropine nightshade plant that increases heart rate greatly. Muscarine poisonous mushroom - stops heart entirely. PHOTOS Nightshade Plant containing atropine

Poisonous Mushroom containing muscarine VI. Factors Affecting Heart Rate 1. 2. 3. Age pre-birth 140-160 then declines until age 20 when it is constant at 70-75/min. Sex women slightly higher than men. Physical Conditioning athletes lower. VII. Heart Sounds

A. Lub sound of ventricles contracting B. Best heard at approximately over the 5-6th rib of left sternum. Dub sound of closing semilunar valves.

Sound is shorter in duration & higher pitch. Best heard between 2nd and 3rd ribs near the sternum. VIII. Heart Disorders 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ischemia lack of blood to part of the heart. Fibrillation heart irregularities.

Tachycardia rapid heart beat. Heart murmur from faulty valves Atrial or ventricular holes mix O2 & CO2 blood. Victim turns blue.

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