Electron Configuration The distribution of electrons among the orbitals of an atom Describes where the electrons are found and what energies they possess. Determined by distributing the atoms electrons among levels(n=1,2,3etc.), sublevels(1s,2s,2p,etc.), and orbitals(s,p,d,f), based on a standard set of principles
Principles for Configurations 1) Aufbau Principle 2) Pauli Exclusion Principle 3) Hunds Rule The Aufbau Principle Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the
electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Ex. 1s fills before 2s before 2p before 3s, etc. Exceptions to the Aufbau Principle 1st Chromium(Cr)
Expected 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d4 Actual 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 2nd Copper Expected 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9 Actual 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 Pauli Exclusion Principle An orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons and to
occupy this orbital simultaneously they must have opposite spins. Pauli Electron pairs Pairs of electrons with opposite spins are said to be PAIRED Single electrons in an orbital are UNPAIRED
Hydrogen Z=1 Helium Z=2 Hunds Rule Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results.
Hunds equal-energy orbitals Orbital Diagrams 1s 2s Carbon Z=6 2p
Writing Configurations There are several ways to do configurations. One method is the arrow diagram,christmas tree, or beehive. In this method you write out the sublevels for each energy levels
and draw arrows Writing Configurations Another method is using the periodic table as a guide. The table is broken into 4 blocks, s,p,d,f 7 rows or energy levels Finally the elements
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1. Repetitive element is an element which occurs in every work cycle of an operation. 2.Occasional element is an element which does not occur in every work cycle. 3.Constant element is an element for which the basic time remains constant...