4.2 Sociocultural Level of Analysis: Social and Cultural Norms

4.2 Sociocultural Level of Analysis: Social and Cultural Norms

4.2 Sociocultural Level of Analysis: Social and Cultural Norms Social Learning Theory How are norms passed on to individuals in a group? Social Learning Done through observational learning Watching models and imitating Factors

Attention: person must pay attention Retention: observer must remember the behavior Motor reproduction: observer must be able to replicate Motivation: learners must want to demonstrate Motivational Factors (affects observers willingness to imitate) Consistency will increase likelihood of imitation

Identification with the model Rewards/punishment Vicarious reinforcement- observation without the consequences (movies or reality) Observational learning Liking the model affects the willingness to imitate Learn better from someone you know and like Bandura et al. (1961) Children and Aggression What was the methodology? What were the findings?

What are some of the criticisms of the study? Application of Social Learning Theory in Real Life Violence and Television What has the research shown in regards to the affects of television and aggressive behavior? Huesmann and Eron (1986) Kimball and Zabrack (1986) St. Helena Island The Sabido Method

Radio and Television to change behavior. Learn from role models that we identify with. Social Influence: Compliance Def: The result of direct pressure to respond to a request Compliance Techniques (Robert Cialdini) Authority Ex. Famous people in ads Commitment If already committed, similar requests will be met

Liking Reciprocity Need to return favors Reciprocity Principle: treat others as they treat you Door in-the-face technique Acceptance of lesser second request Scarcity Adds value to opportunities, limited time offer Social Proof Correct if others are doing it

Commitment Being consistent with previous behavior Kurt Lewin (1951) Goal Gradients: the longer one commits, less likely to change Foot-in-the-door technique Small commit leads to larger one Ex. Petitions lead to active support on election day Dickerson et al. (1992) Water usage study

Did it prove anything? Low-balling study Cialdini et al. (1974) Hazing Why do groups do it? Does it work? Social Influence: Conformity Asch Line Test Why do people conform?

Factors that influence conformity Group size Did larger affect conformity? Unanimity Conformity most likely when all confederates agreed Confidence Feelings of competence and intelligence reduced conformity Self-esteem High self-esteem reduced conformity

Evaluating the Asch Study Potential problems Artificiality Ecological validity Demand characteristics Participants act the way they think they should Cultural Validity Ethical considerations Deception and anxiety

Friend et al. (1990) Why do people conform? Festinger (1954) Social comparison Ideas and opinions evaluated by looking at what others do. Cognitive dissonance Doing things differently causes anxiety Normative Social Influence Nature as social animals

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