9. Skills Related Fitness - Miss Curtis PE revision
KS4 Physical Education Skill Related Fitness These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Agility Agility is the ability of the performer to change the position of their body quickly, whilst keeping their entire body under
control. Agility is especially important in sports like fencing and squash that require quick and precise movements. 2 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Balance Balance is the ability of the performer to retain their centre of mass over their base of support. Balance can be: static for example, standing on one leg
dynamic for example, keeping your balance on a bike as it goes round a corner. What type of balance does a surfer need? 3 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Coordination Coordination is the ability of the performer to move two or more body parts accurately and smoothly in response to stimuli from the senses.
For example, an effective tennis stroke requires coordinating footwork and arm action. 4 of 14 EMPICS Ltd Coordination allows you to produce complex actions from a number of smaller movements. Boardworks Ltd 2006 Power Power is a combination of
strength and speed it is the ability to do strength performances quickly. power = strength speed Power is important in explosive events like throwing and sprinting. Power is vital to getting a good start in short races. 5 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Reaction time Reaction time is the amount of time it takes for a performer to initiate movement after the presentation
of a stimulus. For example, how quickly a table tennis player reacts to a wide serve from their opponent. The faster they react, the better their chance of making the return. A stimulus could be anything from a starting gun to a sudden side-step by an opponent, or a shout from a teammate. 6 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Speed Speed is the rate at which a performer is able to
perform a movement or cover a set distance. It could be how fast a badminton player can move their racket to cover a drop shot, or how fast an athlete can run 1,500 m. Speed is very important in many sports it can often be the thing that separates a good performer from a great performer. How important is speed in the following activities? Rugby 7 of 14 Dancing Lawn bowls Boardworks Ltd 2006
Endurance Local Muscle Endurance - a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (e.g. rowing or cycling) Cardiovascular Endurance - the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (e.g. running long distances) 8 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Flexibility the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle
9 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Learning objectives Methods of Training The advantages and disadvantages of: continuous training interval training Fartlek training circuit training cross-training weight training. 10 of 25
14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Continuous training Continuous training is the simplest form of training. As the name suggests, it involves training with no rest periods or recovery intervals. This type of training is a good way to improve your aerobic energy system. Swimming, running and cycling are common examples of continuous training activities. You need to work for a minimum of 20 minutes to achieve some kind of benefit.
11 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Continuous training The fitter you become, the longer you will be able to work for. As fitness improves, you will also be able to sustain a higher level of intensity. You should start training at about 60% of your maximum heart rate (MHR) increasing to around 75%80% as your level of
fitness improves. 12 of 14 You need to stay within the aerobic zone during continuous training. Boardworks Ltd 2006 Continuous training Continuous training depletes your carbohydrate stores. As the body needs an energy supply to keep working, it is forced into using fat supplies. This means that continuous training is a good way to burn fat and lose weight. Continuous training doesnt just mean running. Aerobics is a popular form of continuous training. It is usually performed to
music and requires the performer to coordinate whole body movements. Disadvantages The main drawback of continuous training is that it does not improve speed or agility. This means it is not ideal for games players who need to be able to change pace. Continuous training can also be extremely boring! 13 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Interval training Interval training involves following a fixed pattern of periods of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of rest or light activity. It can be used to gradually improve pace or
train for sports like football and hockey where bursts of speed are required. Example Row for 1 minute at 30 strokes per minute, then 2 minutes at 18 strokes per minute. One set = 5 repetitions of the above pattern. Complete 3 sets as shown above with 5 minute rests between each set. 14 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Interval training Interval training should be planned carefully. The duration and intensity of the exercise and the length of the rest periods must be calculated to suit the performers level of fitness.
The following can be adjusted to suit the individual performer: the type of activity done by the performer the length of the training session the number of bursts done in each period of exercise the rest period between bursts of strenuous exercise the intensity put into each burst of exercise the duration of each burst of exercise. Interval training involves a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. 15 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Fartlek training Fartlek training was developed in Sweden. It usually involves running, though you could apply the
same principles to other activities like cycling and swimming. Fartlek is derived from the Swedish term meaning speed play. Essentially, this training involves many changes of speed. Intensity can also be varied, e.g., by running uphill or downhill. Like interval training, fartlek training is good for performers in activities requiring changes of pace and sudden bursts. 16 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Fartlek training Advantages Fartlek training can be used to improve both the aerobic
and anaerobic systems by mixing moderate activity with bursts of speed. It can be varied to suit the fitness level of each individual performer and the available time they have to train. This type of training can be used to avoid boredom in sports like running and cycling which can be monotonous. Disadvantages As the performer decides on the intensity of work, it can be hard for coaches to tell if performers are working as hard as they should be. 17 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Fartlek training an example
An example of a Fartlek training session: 10 minute jog to warm up. Sprint hard for 30 seconds. Jog for 2 minutes. Run (about 75% of max) for 50 seconds. Jog for 2 minutes. Repeat 6 times, reducing the periods of jogging by 10 seconds each time. 10 minute warm down jog. 18 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Circuit training Circuit training is a good way to organize training. In a circuit, you undertake a sequence
of exercises. Each exercise is performed at a station (or workstation). There are usually between 8 and 15 of these stations in a circuit. Performers spend a set amount of time at each station in turn, e.g., 1 or 2 minutes at each. Alternatively, you can do a set number of repetitions or exercises for each activity. Disadvantages Circuit training can take time to arrange and often requires a lot of equipment. 19 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Circuit training
Advantages When designing a circuit you can organize the stations to suit a particular activity or fitness goal. You can target specific muscle groups. You can include weight training activities to increase strength. You can increase the length of each activity to train the aerobic system. You can include skill-based activities. To develop general fitness, you may wish to use a range of different types of activities. You can alternate muscle groups between each station to delay muscle fatigue. 20 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Circuit training
Here is an example of a circuit designed for footballers. star jumps dribbling press-ups keepyuppy 2 MINUTE STATIONS passing sit-ups sprints sideways
jumps 21 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Cross-training Cross-training uses a combination of activities to break up the potential boredom of using a single type of training. As cross-training is a mixture of various types of training, it can be adapted to suit an individuals needs and preferences. For example, an individual could spend one day running, one day swimming and one day playing tennis. This type of training is a good way to maintain a high level of general fitness, while resting muscles used in a main activity. Elite athletes, however, may find that
it is not specific enough to prepare Elite cyclists do almost them for their chosen activity. all their training on bikes. 22 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Weight training Weight training is an effective way of improving a performers strength. Weight training is usually anaerobic. However, aerobic weight training can be achieved by using very light weights over a long training time. Weight training is useful in several different ways: It can improve muscular strength.
It can improve muscular endurance. It can improve speed. It can aid rehabilitation after an injury. Disadvantages Weight training often requires a lot of equipment. 23 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Weight training reps and sets Weight training programmes are usually planned using repetitions (reps) and sets. A repetition is a single movement or exercise.
A set is a given number of repetitions (usually 812). In a weights session, performers usually perform 23 sets of about 1015 reps for each weight training exercise. How many repetitions are there altogether in 3 sets of 12 reps? 24 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Weight training example Below are some examples of the types of weight training appropriate for improving different forms of strength. Sets Reps
2030 4060 Explosive Strength 3 1015 at speed 6080 What weight, reps and sets would you suggest for a shot-putter doing leg presses, if their 1 RM is 120 kg?
25 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why? 26 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why? 27 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why?
28 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why? 29 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why? 30 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006
Which method of training? Why? 31 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Which method of training? Why? 32 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Complete worksheet Methods of training 33 of 14
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Principles of training Improving performance is not just about training more competitors need to follow a carefully planned training programme. There are a number of principles that performers and coaches must follow if they are to fulfil their potential. 34 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Individual needs
All training programmes must consider the individual needs of the performer. Before designing a training programme, you need to ask the following questions about the individual: What is their initial level of fitness? How old are they? Are they male or female? Why do they want to train? What is their aim or motivation? The answers will help you to tailor the training programme to the individual needs and abilities of the performer. 35 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Principles of training When planning any training, you have to apply the
principles of training. The principles can be easily memorized using the mnemonic, SPORT. Specificity S Progression P Overload O Reversibility R Tedium T 36 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006
Worksheet SPORT and FITT worksheet 37 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Specificity Specificity You must do specific types of activity to improve specific parts of the body in specific ways. Different events can require very different forms of training. For example, if youre training for a weightlifting competition,
its no use going swimming every day. You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs. 38 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Specificity You need to train specifically to develop the right muscles if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs. type of fitness do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination? skills you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing. Remember that:
specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants. 39 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Overload Overload Fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made. If a physical fitness programme is to be effective, it must place increased and
specific demands on the body. If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it. Remember though you can train too much! 40 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Overload: the FITT principle There are four ways to achieve overload in an exercise programme. They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic, FITT. Frequency how often you train. Intensity how hard you train. Time (or duration) how long you train for.
Type the kind of training you do. 41 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: frequency How often you should train depends on what you wish to achieve. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that to maintain health, you should do 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week. However, if you wish to become an intermediate or elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train much more frequently. Elite rowers often train twice a day!
Training is best done regularly, rather than at random intervals. 42 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: intensity energy systems Aerobic respiration means respiration with oxygen. When exercise is not too fast and at a constant, steady rate, the heart can keep the muscles fully supplied with oxygen. Anaerobic respiration means respiration without oxygen. If the exercise is fast or intense and done in short bursts,
the heart cannot supply oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells are using it. 43 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: intensity maximum heart rate (MHR) In order to train the correct energy system, you need to calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR). Your maximum heart rate is the fastest that your heart can beat. It depends on your age and can be estimated using the following formula: maximum heart rate = 220 age Use this formula to calculate the maximum heart rate of: a) a 16 year old 204 c) a 53 year old 167
b) a 24 year old 196 d) a 67 year old 153 Heart rate is measured in beats per minute. 44 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: intensity training zones If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum. If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum. The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness.
An unfit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at 60% of their maximum heart rate. A fit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at more like 80% of their maximum heart rate. 45 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: intensity training zones 80% to 90% of MHR Training in the anaerobic zone increases strength and power. As you approach 90% of the performers maximum heart rate, training time will have to get shorter and it will take more time for the performer to recover. This is because anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid,
which builds up in the muscles. When there is too much lactic acid, the performer must stop. 60% to 80% of MHR Training between these levels will improve a performers stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels. Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise. Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods. 46 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: time Intensity will affect the time (or duration) of each training session. The length of session required to achieve improvements depends on how hard a performer is training. To achieve improvements in aerobic fitness, you should aim to spend at least 20 minutes per session in the target zone.
However, time will vary greatly depending on the activity the performer is training for. If they are training for a marathon, they may need to spend several hours at a time in the aerobic zone. A sprinter, on the other hand, will need to spend relatively little time actually exercising their sessions are likely to consist of many short, high intensity bursts with lengthy rests in-between. 47 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 FITT: type If your aim is simple health related fitness, then the type of exercise you do does not matter very much it just needs to raises your pulse into the aerobic zone for about 20 minutes. You could even include activities like gardening, walking the dog or just dancing round your kitchen!
However, if you are training for a specific event or competition, then the type of exercise you do is very important. Overload can be achieved by changing the type of exercise for example, you could lift the same weight but in a different way and using different muscles. 48 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Reversibility Unfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from training are reversible. This simply means that unless you keep training, any fitness
gains will be lost. Fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced (meaning overload is not achieved) or if a performer stops training, for example, if they are injured. Coaches need to ensure that long periods of inactivity are avoided when possible. Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy). 49 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Tedium When planning a training programme, it is important
to vary the training a bit to prevent performers becoming bored. Training for endurance events can be particularly boring. Tedium is less of a problem in team sports. If every training session is the same, a performer can lose enthusiasm and motivation for training. You should include a variety of different training methods or vary the type of activity.
Why can it sometimes be difficult to avoid tedium while obeying the first principle specificity? 50 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Progression Progression means gradually increasing the amount of exercise you do. When a performer first starts exercising, their levels of fitness may be poor. If a coach increases the training too quickly, the body will not have time to adapt and this may result in injury. Slow and steady progress is the best way forward. For example, if you were training for a 10 km run, you might start by going for two 30 minute runs a week.
You could then increase the time you run for by 3 minutes each week. 51 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Progression Gradually increasing the frequency, intensity and duration of fitness sessions is an important factor in developing an effective training programme. In terms of type of training, progression should be based on the principle of moving from easy activities to difficult ones. For example, if you were creating a training programme for a novice skier, you would not start
them off on a really steep, difficult run. 52 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Moderation Moderation means achieving a balance between not training enough and overtraining. Achieving the right balance is very important. Without proper rest and recovery time, performers can become too tired to train effectively and become stressed and irritable.
Even worse, overtraining can lead to injury. This can occur through overstressing joints and tissues, or through poor technique resulting from exhaustion. 53 of 14 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Your exercise plan Plan a exercise plan for a six week period. Choose the fitness component within your sport to improve eg endurance in football Consider FITT principle 54 of 14
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