90 Minute Reading Block Carol Dissen [email protected] K-3 Statewide Literacy Outreach November 14-15, 2007 90 Minute What to Plan for?? Reading More Turns with Block 100% Student Engagement
Independent Practice Instructional Intensity Differentiated Instruction/ Grouping/ Scheduling Instructional Programs & Materials
Professional Development Assessment Literacy Coaching Teaching Reading Requires Expertise Teaching Reading is Rocket Science (Moats, 1999). Teaching reading is a job for an expert. The majority of teacher preparation programs underestimate the depth of preparation and practice needed.
Teaching Reading Requires Expertise Quality in Education Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction, and skillful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives. Willa A. Foster Understanding the Purpose of Different Programs Programs are tools that are implemented by teachers to ensure that children learn enough on time.
Classifying Reading Programs: What is the purpose of the program? Core 1. Core 2. Supplemental 3. Intervention Intervention Supplemental Core
Reading Program Supplemental Reading Program Intervention Reading Program Meeting the needs for most Supporting the Core Meeting the needs for each (Vaughn et al. 2001)
A Schools Continuum of Programs and Materials Core: Programs and materials designed to enable 80% or more of students to attain schoolwide reading goals. Supplemental: Programs and materials designed to support the core program by addressing specific skill areas such as phonemic awareness or reading fluency. Intervention: Programs and materials designed to provide intensive support for students performing below grade level. Programs and materials emphasize big ideas Programs are implemented with high fidelity Kameenui & Simmons A core program is the base reading program designed to provide instruction on
the essential areas of reading for the majority of students schoolwide. In general, the core program should enable 80% or more of students to attain schoolwide reading goals. Kameenui & Simmons Focus on Quality Did I get through the lesson? Did the students
master the material? How WELL did I teach the lesson? What teacher effects should I be aware of? Programs are only as good as the level of implementation To optimize program effectiveness: Implement the program everyday with fidelity (i.e., the way it was written)
Deliver the instruction clearly, consistently, and explicitly (e.g., model skills and strategies) Provide scaffolded support to students (e.g., give extra support to students who need it) Provide opportunities for practice with corrective feedback (e.g., maximize engagement and individualize feedback) Kameenui & Simmons Our Focus WHAT Sequencing and coordination of components/ curriculum design
HOW What teachers do to ensure that students actually learn the components as they move through the curriculum Carnine, Silbert, Kameenui, Tarver The Marriage The Art of Teaching
+ First Class Instructional Materials/ Scope and Sequence Jill Jackson = BOOSTED STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Lets start with ENGAGEMENT so that ALL students are learning! Delivery of Instruction Gain and maintain attention Elicit responses
Maintain a perky pace Monitor students responses Provide corrective feedback Provide passage reading practice Anita Archer, 2007 Active Participation -- Second Graders with Anita Archer Delivery of Instruction: Gain and maintain attention Procedures for Maintaining Attention
Gain attention Elicit responses from students Maintain a perky pace Maintain close proximity to students Connect with students Eye contact
Smile Name Monitor Add delight and humor Teach with enthusiasm Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Gain and maintain attention Other ways to increase attention: 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Anita Archer, 2007 _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________
Delivery of Instruction: Active Participation Think Have students think and record responses As students are writing, move around the classroom and record their ideas and their names on an overhead transparency. Pair Have students share their ideas with their partners. Have them record their partners best ideas. As students are sharing, continue to record ideas on the overhead. Share Use the transparency for sharing with the class.
Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Active Participation Think Pair Share What are ways that students can respond in a lesson? 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7. Anita Archer, 2007 _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Delivery of Instruction:
Elicit Responses (Choral Responses) Choral Responses Students are looking at the teacher Ask a question. Put up your hands to indicate silence. Give thinking time. Lower your hands as you say, Everyone. Students are looking at a common stimulus
Point to the stimulus. Ask a question. Give thinking time. Tap for a response. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Choral Responses)
Choral Responses Students are looking at their own book/paper. Ask a question. Use an auditory signal (Everyone.). Hints for Choral Responses: Give adequate thinking time. Have students put up their thumbs OR look at you to indicate enough thinking time. If students dont respond or blurt, repeat. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses
(Choral Responses) List specific parts of your lessons where you can use Choral Responses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anita Archer, 2007 _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Partner Responses) Partners Assign partners Pair lower performing students with middle performing students. Give the partners a number. Sit partners next to each other.
Utilize triads when appropriate. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Partner Responses) Other hints for partners Teach students how to work together. LOOK, LEAN, AND WHISPER. Teach students how to give and receive encouragement and compliments. Teach students that cooperative practice relates to the work place not to friendship. Change the partnerships occasionally (every three to six weeks).
Join two partnerships to form cooperative teams. If you plan to use cooperative teams often, give students team numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Make 1 and 2 partners and 3 and 4 partners. When requesting responses on partnerships, refer to evens and odds. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Partner Responses) Use of partners: 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. Say answer to partner. Retell content of lesson using a graphic organizer. Review content (Tell, Help, Check). Brainstorm (Think, Pair, Share). Explain process, strategy, or algorithm using examples. 6. Read to or with partner. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses
(Partner Responses) List specific parts of your lessons where you can use Partner Responses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anita Archer, 2007 _______________________________
_______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Individual Responses) Less desirable practices 1. Teacher asks question. Students raise their hands. Teacher calls on student with raised hand.
Disadvantages:_________________________ _____________________________________ 2. Student is inattentive. Teacher calls on the student to regain attention. Anita Archer, 2007 Disadvantages:_________________________ _____________________________________ Delivery of Instruction:
Elicit Responses (Individual Responses) Individual Responses Option #1 Have students share answers with their partner. Call on a student. Advantages: ___________________________ ______________________________________ Option #2
Ask a question. Raise your hands to indicate silence. Give thinking time. Call on a student. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses (Individual Responses)
Procedures for calling on students to insure that all students are involved. Procedure #1: Call on students in different parts of the room. Procedure #2: Write names on cards or sticks. Draw a name. Procedure #3: Give each student a playing card. Other uses of playing cards: Form huddle groups of hearts, clubs, diamonds, spades. Give roles to team members. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses
(Written Responses) Written responses Gauge the length of the written response to avoid voids Make the response fairly short OR Make the response eternal. To keep students from sneaking ahead. Expose limited items on the overhead. Have students put their pencils down to indicate completion. Give immediate feedback. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction:
Elicit Responses (Other Responses) Touch or put pencil on stimulus. Increase attention. Allows monitoring of attention to stimulus. Act out. Use hand signals. Useful to share categorical responses. Model hand signal before using. Display answer with response cards. Give students possible responses on cards (e.g., True/False, Yes/No, etc.) Ask a question. Have students display card or point to response.
Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Elicit Responses Which of these methods will you use in your groups? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Maintain a Perky Pace
Prepare for the lesson. Use instructional routines When you get a response, move on. Avoid verbosity. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Monitor Students Responses Walk/Move/Reach around. Look around. Talk around. Anita Archer, 2007
Delivery of Instruction: Provide Immediate Feedback Acknowledge/Praise Encourage/Support Correct Errors Correct errors with the individual or the group Correct with a neutral affect. Use: I do it. We do it. You do it. Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Passage Reading Choral Reading Read selection with your students. Read at a moderate rate.
Tell your students, Keep your voice with mine. Cloze Reading Read selection. Pause on meaningful words. Have students read the deleted words. (Excellent practice for reading initial part of a chapter or when you need to read something quickly.) Anita Archer, 2007 Delivery of Instruction: Passage Reading Partner Reading Assign each student a partner. Reader whisper reads to partner. Students alternate by
sentence, paragraph, or page. Coach corrects errors. Ask: Can you figure out this word? Tell: This word is ______. What word? Go back. Alternatives to support lowest readers: Lowest readers placed on a triad. First reader (better reader) reads material. Second reader reads the SAME material. Students read the material together. Anita Archer, 2007 Management
Organize the group to promote appropriate behavior. Guidelines for group arrangement. 1. Students are facing the teacher during the instruction. 2. The teacher can easily monitor all areas of the room. 3. All members of the group are visible. 4. Materials are accessible. 5. Students can easily work with a partner. Anita Archer, 2007
Management Big Ideas: Anticipate and remove. Avoid the void. Communicate clear expectations. Rules Looks like/Sounds like charts. Routines Anita Archer, 2007 Management Establish routines:
Anita Archer, 2007 Required materials Distributing materials Assigning tasks Completing tasks Moving in and out of the group Beginning of Group: Warm-up activities End of Group: Closing activities
Management Asking questions during the lesson. Teach students a routine that emphasizes public versus private questions. Public questions. If the answer to the question would be useful to all students, the student would raise his/her hand and ask the question. Private questions. If the answer would only be useful to the student, the student would do one of the following: Option #1: Turn over red/green card or playing card. Option #2: Place hand on heart.
Option #3: Wait until the teacher is near during monitoring. Anita Archer, 2007 Management Big Idea Connect. Catch students being good. TEACH WITH PASSION. MANAGE WITH COMPASSION. Anita Archer, 2007
For a reading program to be balanced, it must be differentiated to meet the needs of each child. -Vaughn, 2002 Now, how do I go about planning my lessons to meet the needs of all learners? Differentiated Instruction Aligned With Student Needs Examples
Students are grouped based on skill level (assessment results) Specified intervention and supplemental programs are implemented depending on student needs and profiles Groups are reorganized based on changes in student skill as assessed by regular progress monitoring data How do I address the needs of all my students? Instruction
Assess Teach/ Differentiate Practice Apply Evaluate/Assess Assessment is the Key Students must progress, at an appropriate pace from what they already know to higher levels of learning Teachers can plan better when they know what standards students have mastered
Assessment is the Key For a variety of reasons, gaps often appear in what has been learned for special needs students Gaps can be discovered through ASSESSMENT _________________ and remediation can occur without slowing down the entire language arts program! Types of Assessments Think, Pair, Share!
What assessment tools do you have to inform your instruction? Using Data to Develop Instructional Plans: Phonics Screeners Phonics screening tools are used to identify students phonics gaps to better target instruction. Examples: CORE Phonics Screener Quick Phonics Screener (Read Naturally) Houghton Mifflin Phonics Decoding Screener Task
5A Task 5B Task 5C Task 5D Task 5E
Short Vowels in CVC Words sip cat let but vop fut dit keb Comments: Score hog (real) laz (pseudo)
/10 Short Vowels, digraphs, and -tch trigraph when chop rich shut match (real) wheck shom thax phitch chud (pseudo) Comments:
Score Consonant blends with short vowels stop trap quit spell stig brab qued snop clip fast sank limp
frep nast wunk kimp Comments: Score Long-Vowel Spellings tape key lute loe bine joad
Comments: r- and l-Controlled Vowels bark horn chirp ferm dall gorf Comments: plan dran held jelt
(real) (pseudo) (real) (pseudo) /10 /20 Score paid vay feet (real) soat (pseudo)
/10 Score term murd cold (real) char (pseudo) /10 Create an Assessment Plan Instructional programs, grouping, and time are adjusted and intensified
according to learner performance and needs. Grouping Students with reading difficulties who are taught in small groups learn more than students who are instructed as a whole class (National Reading Panel, 2000). Alternate grouping formats (e.g. one-one-one, pairs, small group, whole group) for different instructional purposes and to meet students needs Use small, same-ability groups, continually monitor student progress, and regroup to reflect students knowledge and skills When students experience difficulties, reteach the knowledge and skills that have the highest impact on
learning to read Size Whole class appropriate for instruction in elements of the core reading program can be used in providing supplemental reading activities fewer opportunities for individual response Small group (3-8 students) & One on One
focused instruction greater opportunities to respond enables close monitoring of student performance enables provision of performance feedback enables remediation of chronic errors Planning Differentiated Instructional Focus Groups Instructional Focus #1: Students who are classified Benchmark on program independent screening or progress monitoring and pass all In-Program assessments. Instructional Plan:
Instructional Focus #2: Students who are classified Benchmark on program independent screening or progress monitoring and fail one or more In-Program assessments. Instructional Plan: Instructional Focus #3: Students who are classified Strategic on program independent screening or progress monitoring and pass all sections of a Phonics Screening Assessment. Instructional Plan:
Instructional Focus #4: Students who are classified Strategic on program independent screening or progress monitoring and fail one or more sections of a Phonics Screening Tool. Instructional Plan: Instructional Focus #5: Students who are classified Intensive on program independent screening or progress monitoring. Students should be placed in categories that match the intervention placements tests. Instructional Plan:
Differentiated Reading Model Whole Group Instruction: Core Program Opening Routines Core Program Strategy/Skill Lessons (Phonemic Awareness/Phonics/ High-Frequency Words/Comprehension/Vocabulary) Core Program Literature Instructional Small Groups: Independent/Interactive Activities: Core or Intervention Strategy/Skill Work
Practice Pages Core or Intervention Read Practice Partner Reading Fluency Building Skill Practice Dynamic Instructional Groups: (Flood Staff Resources) Double Dose Instructional Small Groups Supplemental Phonemic Awareness/Phonics
Supplemental Fluency Supplemental Comprehension Language Support ELL Pre-teaching Planning for Instructional Intensity Explicit Instruction Systematic Instruction Modeling Many Opportunities to Respond Immediate Error Correction Limit Teacher Talk (keep focused and simple) Jill Jackson, 2007 5 Mores
Jo Robinson, 2007 More explicit/direct instruction More modeling More practice with... More feedback More time 1. More Explicit and Direct Teaching
Teacher makes existing directions more explicit Switch student to a more explicit core program or intervention 2. More Modeling Show exactly what you want during first teaching and when you correct My Turn Blend a word Read a line of practice fast Read a sentence smoothly Read a paragraph or page smoothly Say a complete sentence
3. More Practice More turns Saying letter names/sounds Saying sight words fast Blending words Reading complete sentences smoothly Reading complete pages smoothly Answering comprehension questions in complete sentences Hearing and using vocabulary words 4. With More Feedback My Turn error correction Error Correction
Sound/letter naming correction My Turn. That letter is d. What letter? Go back. My turn. This sound is /o/. What sound? Go back. Error Correction Blending correction in story reading For early first grade or intervention phonics groups: Sound it out. (Sound out with them.) Go back. For sight words and after blending is firm: My turn.
That word is____. What word? Go back. Error Correction After blending correction in story reading For mid first grade or intervention phonics groups past blending: My turn. That word is____. What word? Go back. Error Correction Fluency correction for poor expression
My turn. (Same section read by teacher with correct expression/rate modeled) Go back If they dont go on: Go on. 5. More Time Full 90 minute block Extra intervention block Big Ideas of Reading Instruction 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Phonemic Awareness: The ability to hear and manipulate sound in words. Alphabetic Principle: The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text: The effortless, automatic ability to read words in isolation (orthographic coding) and connected text. Vocabulary Development: The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. Comprehension: The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader
and text to extract meaning. Kameenui & Simmons Effective Instructional Techniques Signaling Signaling Unison Unison oral oral responding responding Pacing Pacing Monitoring Monitoring Correcting
Correcting errors errors and and teaching teaching to to mastery mastery Phonological Awareness PA Warm Up Example Format: Template for Phoneme Blending Instruction
Prepare chains of 2, 3, 4, and 5 cubes prior to lesson. Say: Youre going to practice blending individual sounds to make words. Ill tap a cube as I say each sound in the word. When I slide my finger above the cubes youll say the whole word. Say: Ill model for you how to blend the sounds I say into a word. Ill model two words. My turn. Model, using the signaling procedure above, with only teacher responding. Say: Your turn.Use the above signaling procedure with only students responding. To correct students: Say: My turn. Use signaling procedure above with only teacher responding to correct students on
missed item. Say: Your turn. Use signaling procedure above with only students responding . Back up two items and continue. When it appears that the group is consistently answering all items correctly, provide individual turns as a check. Call on several students for one word each. Call on students in an unpredictable order. Call more frequently on students who made errors. If a student makes an error on an individual turn, you may provide Correction Procedure with all students responding. Reading First Technical Assistance Center: Templates for Use with High Risk Learner; Card 5: Template for Phoneme Blending Instruction (2007) PA Warm Up Example Format: Template for Phoneme Segmentation Say: Youre going to practice saying the sounds in words. Ill say a word. Each time I hold up a
finger, youll say a sound in the word. Say: Ill model how to say the sounds in two words. Ill say a sound each time I hold up a finger. My turn. Model, using the signaling procedure above, with only teacher responding. Say: Your turn. Use the above signaling procedure with only students responding. To correct students: Say: My turn. Use signaling procedure above with only teacher responding to correct students on missed item.
Say: Your turn. Use signaling procedure above with only students responding. Back up two words and continue. When it appears that the group is consistently answering all items correctly, provide individual turns as a check. Call on several students for one word each. Call on students in an unpredictable order. Call more frequently on students who made errors. If a student makes an error on an individual turn, you may provide Correction Procedure with all students responding. Reading First Technical Assistance Center: Templates for Use with High Risk Learner; Card 5: Template for Phoneme Segmentation (2007) Alphabetic Principal
Explicit Phonics Lesson PA warm up Introduce or review sound/spelling (explicit) Blending (explicit) Decodable text Dictation Word work New Phonic Element oi Introducing a sound spelling for the first time Reviewing a previously taught sound/spelling
-oy Example: This is the boy card. Card?___ This sound is /oi/. Sound? ___ The spelling is oi. Spelling? ___ oi Blending Example: Spelling Focused Blending Sound? (Tap under sound) Word? (Slide hand under word)
boil point spoil check bean boat coin chin moist Review:
Added Practice: ay ai a_e ai ay ai a_e
ai ay tray mail late day gate
pail sail gray date where the said she when there
what come they Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words. Strategy Words -- Multisyllabic Segment the word into decodable parts. Indicate parts with loops under the word. Guide students in reading each part of the word. (Move your finder under each part of the word.) What part? _______________ What part? _______________ What part? _______________
What part? _______________ Anita Archer, 2007 condensation atmosphere evaporation Decodable Text Definition: Decodable text contains (a) wholly decodable words that conform to previously introduced letter/sound correspondences and (b) previously introduced high-frequency and sight words. Purpose:
Decodable text gives beginning readers the support necessary to apply newly acquired phonics skills to the material they are reading. Core Source Book pg. 2.19 Reading Decodable Text Touch under the first word. Ready? Read. Correction: My turn. That word is ____. What word? Go back to the beginning of the sentence. When students are readyMix it up! -Word by Word -Sentence by Sentence -Page by Page
Match the Text Type to the Instructional Objective Wordless Decodable Text Anthology Leveled Reader Authentic Concepts of Print
Applying New Phonics Skills Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension _____________ Dictation Dictation activities connect the encoding process (writing) to the decoding (reading) by demonstrating that students not only use sound/spelling knowledge to read, but the same knowledge enables them to communicate with others through writing. (CORE Source Book pg. 8.19)
Sound by Sound Whole Word Sentence Dictation -- Third Graders with Anita Archer Example Dictation Routine: Sound by Sound: The word is boil. Whats the word? ____ Say the sounds in boil. _ _ _ Whats the first sound? _ Whats the spelling for /b/? Write the spelling. Whats the next sound?
Whats the spelling for /oi/? Write the spelling. Whats the next sound? Whats the spelling for /l/? Write the spelling. After each word, write the correct spelling on the board. Ask students to correct their spellings by CROSSING out the incorrect spelling and rewriting. Example Dictation Routine: Word by Word: The word is boil. Whats the word? ____ Say the sounds in boil in your head. Write one spelling for each sound. After each word, write the correct spelling on the
board. Ask students to correct their spellings by CROSSING out the incorrect spelling and rewriting. Vocabulary Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words View Video #1 What instructional steps (routines) are used to introduce each of the words? What other good practices do
you observe? Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Robust, Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Attributes of good vocabulary instruction Multiple exposures Definitional information and contextual information Sufficient amount of instructional time to insure understanding of words Active engagement in instruction
Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine (Note: Teach words AFTER you have read a story to your students and BEFORE students read a selection.) B * (T) D A Instructional Routine for Teaching Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Procedures: UseWord
in Combination Complete Diagram or Four Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Introduce the Word a. Write the word on board. b. Read word. Students repeat. c. Repeat for unfamiliar words.
Present a Student-Friendly Definition a. Tell students explanation, or, b. Have students read explanation with you. Illustrate the Word with Examples Concrete examples Visual representations Verbal examples Check Students Understanding Option 1: Option 2: Option 3: Option 4:
V with Page Template #17. Square with 4 new vocabulary words. Deep processing questions Examples/Nonexamples Students generate examples
Sentence starter Example This word is reluctant. What word? Reluctant means you are not sure you want to do something. When you are not sure you want to do something, you are If your mother asked you to try a new food, you might be reluctant. You may be reluctant to watch a scary movie.
Why would a student be reluctant to go to a new school? Would you be reluctant to go to recess on a warm, sunny day? Tell your partner something you would be reluctant to do. Tell your partner something a cat might be reluctant to do. Start your sentence by saying, A cat might be reluctant to . . . Then tell why. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine
Step 1: Introduce the word A. Write the word on the board. B. Read the word. Students repeat. C. Repeat for unfamiliar words. This word is relieved. What word? __________ Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Step 2: Present a Student-Friendly Definition A. Tell students an explanation, or
B. Have the students read the explanation with you. When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. So if something that is difficult is over, you would feel _______________. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Step 3: Illustrate the word with examples Concrete Examples Visual representations
Verbal examples When the spelling test is over, you feel relieved. When you have finished giving the speech that you dreaded, you feel relieved. How to get vocabulary pictures? Santa Maria Bonita School District Web Site (Houghton Mifflin Vocabulary pictures): http://www.smbsd.org/page.cfm?p=1445 Google for Images!! Web Images
Groups News Maps Advanced Search Preferences Google Search Online Web Dictionaries www.wordsmyth.net
www.ldoceonline.com www.longman.com www.wordcentral.com Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine
Step 4: Check Students Understanding Option 1: Option 2: Option 3: Option 4: Deep Processing Questions Examples and Non-Examples Students Generate Examples
Sentence Starter Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Option 1: Ask deep processing questions. When the students lined up for morning recess, Jason said, I am so relieved that this morning is over. Why might Jason be relieved? When Maria was told that the soccer game had been cancelled, she said, I am relieved. Why might Maria be relieved? Teach the Meaning of Critical,
Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Option 2: Have students discern between examples and nonexamples. If you were nervous singing in front of others, would you feel relieved when the concert was over? Yes Why? If you loved singing to audiences, would you feel relieved when the concert was over? No Why not? It was not difficult for you. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words
Instructional Routine Option 3: Have students generate their own examples. Tell your partner a time when you were relieved. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Option 4: Provide students with a sentence starter. Have them say a complete sentence.
Sometimes your mother is relieved. Tell your partner when your mother is relieved. Start your sentence by saying, My mother is relieved when________. Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Instructional Routine Checklist: Did the teacher: 1. Introduce the word? 2. Present a student-friendly explanation?
3. Illustrate the word with examples? 4. Check students understanding? Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Instructional Routine Vocabulary Review: After teaching the group of vocabulary words, review the words using a word association activity. Words written on board or overhead: enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved Tell me the word that I am thinking about.
Someone that hates you might be called an ________. If you didnt like a food, you might say it is ________. When a test is over, you often feel _________. When you are asked to a party, you are _______. Practice Comprehension Scaffolding Reading Comprehension in the Elementary School: During Reading Utilize passage reading procedures that provide adequate reading practice. Ask appropriate questions during passage
reading. Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading. Use graphic organizers to enhance comprehension. (In some cases, use after passage reading.) Anita Archer, 2007 Strategy instruction: The big ideas 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Effective long-term instruction will most likely involve teaching students to flexibly use multiple strategies to improve their comprehension of text. Effective instruction requires many opportunities for students to discuss and interpret text using the application of strategies as a way of structuring the discussion. The focus of strategy instruction should always be on constructing the meaning of the text. Effective strategy instruction always involves explicit description and modeling of strategies by the teacher. Effective strategy instruction always involves extended discussions of text in which the teacher scaffolds student
strategy use. Torgesen, 2007, Comprehension Conference, San Francisco, CA Strategy instruction: The big ideas 6. Always keep in mind that the purpose of strategy instruction is to stimulate students thinking about the meaning of text (by providing guided opportunities for them to actually think about, and interpret text) -- ultimately, their attention needs to be on the text and not on the strategies. Torgesen, 2007, Comprehension Conference, San Francisco, CA Teach strategies that can be applied
to passage reading. Model I do it. Prompt We do it. Check You do it. Archer, 2007, Comprehension Conference, San Francisco, CA
Teach strategies that can be applied to passage reading. Guided Practice We do it. (Lets ________ together.) Prompt verbally. Guide or lead students through the strategy. Step - do - Step - do - Step - do - Step - do Gradually fade your prompt. Archer, 2007, Comprehension Conference, San Francisco, CA Cause and Effect -- Third Graders with Anita Archer Answering Comprehension Questions
Model how to begin writing the written responses on the test, and then expect them to begin the written response the way you modeled. On the overhead, model circling and labeling the who and the what in the comprehension question and then writing the who and the what in the starter for the answer. Have the students circle and label the who and the what in the question on their own paper, then copy your starter and have the students finish the answer themselves. Gradually but as soon as possible, hand-off this procedure to the students until they can do it themselves. Answering Comprehension Questions
Expect all written answers to be 7 UP. This is just an easy to remember way to remind them that they need at least 7 words in their answer. This pushes them to use complete sentences, phrases, adjectives and adverbs. Grade the written responses using a point system for both correct writing and the correctness of the comprehension answer: Example: Who and the what = 1 point Complete sentence (Spelling & punctuation) = 1 point Correct answer = 1 point 3 points TOTAL
Teaching Summarization by Paragraph Shrinking (Fuchs, et al.) Steps: 1. Name the who or what the paragraph is about in a brief phrase. 2. Identify two or three important details about the topic. 3. Shrink the paragraph by stating the main idea in 10-15 words or less. Fluency Scaffolding Reading Comprehension in the
Elementary School: After Reading Provide intentional fluency building practice. Engage students in a discussion. Have students answer written questions. Provide engaging vocabulary practice. Have students write summaries of what they have read.
Building Fluency with Connected Text Reading Effective fluency building instruction involves three critical factors: Selecting appropriate instructional tasks (i.e., letter sounds or words students can produce accurately but not fluently). Scheduling sufficient practice (brief, multiple opportunities per day). Systematically increasing the rate of response (developing individual goals such as 20 wpm, 30, 40, etc). Building Fluency with Connected
Text Reading Fluency building should be scheduled frequently within and across days. Examples: Repeated reading of a passage Brief drill of the 5 High Frequency Words of the Week for 2 minutes 3 times a day Quick review of letter sounds for 2 minutes after each recess Peer tutoring (within or across grades) Whole Class Fluency Practice Activity: 1. Prepare Motivational Chart (on large poster board, or tag board, write all of the students names down the left side of the board) and place on the classroom wall (clearly visible).
2. Explain to the students that the focus is on accuracy!! The student goal is to read their selection (a re-read of familiar text that they have already read in their small reading group) without making any errors. 3. The students whisper read independently, or with a partner, their familiar text (partners need to be pre-determined by the teacher and stay the same for 4-6 weeks). 4. The teacher moves around the classroom listening to individual students read their selection (one page if there is enough text or the entire book if there is minimal text). 5. If the student reads with 100% accuracy (or less than 3 errors per 100 words if the text is large), the teacher puts a star, sticker, etc. next to their name on the motivational chart. 6. If the student reads with errors, the teacher immediately uses error correction (my turn...your turn...), the student finishes the page/story, and the teacher encourages continued practice and makes sure to come back to that student in
the next day or two to check for accuracy again. 7. Work on the accuracy goal until ALL students understand that this is the #1 expectation for reading! 8. When students are ready, switch to expression and rate fluency practice (AND keep the goal of 100% accurate reading). As the teacher moves around the classroom, they will time individual students for 30 seconds to one minute (depending on the length of the text). Count # of words read correctly. If the student read without making errors, record the number of words read next to their name on the motivation chart (the motivation is to read more words each time). Independent Practice Structure Ample Review and Opportunities for Learning
Provide students systematic opportunities to review previously learned skills. The practice needs to be sufficient, distributed across time, and cumulative Fluency building activities can be brief (2-3 minutes) and distributed throughout a day Fluency building is only appropriate for skills that students are highly accurate Student Capabilities Has this ever happened to you? Just as you get started with a direct instruction lesson, whole or small group, you must stop teaching to
take care of students who are off task. Once you get those students going again, you realize youve lost the attention of the group you were teaching! Remember Classroom Management for Differentiating Instruction is: Managing groups Managing behavior Managing curriculum Managing assessment to guide instruction Managing the schedule
Steps to Independence Organize the Classroom for Independence Assess & Analyze: Determine Your Groups Teach Children How to Work with Others and in Groups Introduce, Model, and Provide Practice in How to Complete Work Independently Evaluate the Effectiveness of Your Groups Step One Organize the Classroom for Independence Get your classroom set up for independent work
Step Two Assess & Analyze: Determine Your Groups Think about the groups you need and who should be in them. Keep in mind that youll rethink and regroup students regularly. Step Three Teach Children How to Work with Others and in Groups Invest in teaching students how to work with others Step Four
Introduce, Model, and Provide Practice in How to Complete Work Independently Step Five Evaluate the Effectiveness of Your Groups Check your decisions and your students efforts Day One Select and distribute a group activity Invite students to turn and work with 2 or 3 other students Monitor
Determine group behaviors Management issue Not sure what to do After every group has completed the task, lead a discussion asking, What worked well? What did you have trouble with? Day Two Divide students into interactive groups Remind everyone of the social skills needed for small group work Introduce another activity for small group work Check that everyone is ready Pretend to work with a group
Debrief after 10-15 minutes or students have completed the activity Praise, revisit appropriate group behaviors, and discuss the pride we feel when a job is completed A Subsequent Day Call a group to your table Have the other groups work on a simple activity Establish what everyone has to do Teach your group Debrief Phonemic Awareness
Quick Draw One Card Out Name That Sound Picture Matching and Sorting (initial sounds, ending sounds, etc.) Alphabetic Principal Word Concentration (make a lay-out mat) Highlight certain Sound/Spellings in decodable books Toughy Charts Alphabetic Principal Roll and Write Cut out word and/or picture boxes to build
sentences. Making Words Alphabetic Principle Word Munchers (Thats Right game) Read it, Spell it, Write it Word Sorts Alphabetic Principle Word Checkers Use Highlight Tape to highlight correct beginning sound of the picture. Word Bingo (teach-nology.com) Fluency
Oral Partner Reading Timed Reading (using repeated reading chart) Read to upper-grade buddy Rereading of familiar text (have a partner time each day) Read into whisper phones Vocabulary Write a story using words in the word bank. Vocabulary Bingo (teach-nology.com) Vocabulary Cards on Rings (quiz partner) Student Vocabulary Log Vocabulary
Four Square Vocabulary Bringing Words to Life ideas Comprehension Graphic Organizers Reading Log (use scoring guide!) Response Cards Story Structure Comprehension After Read-Aloud or Anthology Story: Who? What? When? Where?
Why? Professional Development ALL instructional staff has received sufficient training in the programs they are using. On-going in- and out-of-classroom professional development is planned for and provided. Training in classroom management, data analysis, grade level meetings and effective instructional techniques. Professional development in differentiated instruction is on-going. Literacy Coaching
Five-Minute Observations The snapshots of instruction! Five-Minute Observation Form Instructor: ____________________________ School: Date: Time: Program and Level: Grouping Format: Number in Group: Group Performance Level:
In the box next to each General Feature indicate +, -, or NA. Check the circle next to each observed area. Instructor provides corrective feedback after initial student responses. o o o o
Instructor models instructional tasks when appropriate. o Demonstrates the task (e.g., uses think alouds) o Proceeds in step-by-step fashion o Limits language to demonstration of skill o o o o o
Makes eye contact with students, speaks clearly while modeling skill Instructor provides explicit instruction. Sets the purpose for the instruction Identifies the important details of the concept being taught Provides instructions that have only one interpretation Makes connection to previously-learned material Instructor engages students in meaningful interactions with language during lesson. o
o o o o o Provides and elicits background information Emphasizes distinctive features of new concepts Uses visuals and manipulatives to teach content as necessary Makes relationships among concepts overt Engages students in discourse around new concepts Elaborates on student responses
Instructor provides multiple opportunities for students to practice instructional tasks. o o o o Provides more than one opportunity to practice each new skill Provides opportunities for practice after each step in instruction Elicits group responses when feasible Provides extra practice based on accuracy of student
responses Focus: Comments: Phonemic Awareness Phonics o o o o Provides affirmations for correct responses
Promptly corrects errors with provision of correct model Limits corrective feedback language to the task at hand Ensures mastery of all students before moving on Instructor encourages student effort. Provides feedback during and after task completion Provides specific feedback about students accuracy and/or effort Majority of feedback is positive Celebrates or displays examples of student success in reading Students are engaged in the lesson during
teacher-led instruction. o o o o o Gains student attention before initiating instruction Paces lesson to maintain attention Maintains close proximity to students Transitions quickly between tasks Intervenes with off-task students to maintain their focus
Students are engaged in the lesson during independent work. o o o o o Independent work routines and procedures previously taught Models task before allowing students to work independently Checks for student understanding of the task(s) Students use previously-learned strategies or routines
when they come to a task they dont understand Independent work is completed with high level of accuracy Students are successful completing activities at a high criterion level of performance. o o o Fluency Elicits a high percentage of accurate responses from
group Elicits a high percentage of accurate responses from individuals Holds same standard of accuracy for high performers and low performers Vocabulary Comprehension Coaching Feedback Brief and specific comments modeling was explicit -- more repetitions may be helpful you provided think alouds
teacher provided lots of examples many segmenting models high level of engagement constant and immediate feedback Feedback Areas: Areas Implemented Well Be brief and specific. Identified Area(s) for Student Support Choose a critical area and be brief! Action Plan Needs to be connected to the Identified Area for Student Support and needs to be doable. Follow-Up Date Be specific (2 weeks, 1 month, 4th week of
January, etc.) Data Guides Instructional Support Plans If the plan is not working, we do whatever is needed to change the plan. If it is not working after two weeks or a month, you need to change it. You need to make sure the plan is working. Failure is not an option. -RF principal Thank you!