# A Brief History of Planetary Science

PH 105 Dr. Cecilia Vogel Lecture 15 OUTLINE

string vibrations plucking vs bowing envelope tunings specific instruments Review Strings Normal modes of vibration of string are demo

Fundamental mode _______________ fits length of string pitch, based on v 1 T f1 2L 2L

Pitch of String v 1 T f1 2L 2L to change the pitch, can change calculate v why isnt it

String Harmonics The nth mode is its frequency is its wavelength is There are length of string = 1st harmonic is

2nd harmonic is Plucked Modes Normally, the motion is but a A string plucked at center has shape of a which A string plucked

will not have Recall: harmonics lend Plucked String The triangle wave in plucked string Bowing

Bow also pulls string to a point but bow until the wave then the string before being pulled again. Occurs Note: If you bow too gently, If you bow too hard,

Bowed Modes The wave in a bowed string is more like a which has

The harmonic content, of a bowed instrument is very different from Envelope of Plucked String The envelope of a plucked string has a rapid ____ and a long ______ no sustain/release

the harmonic content of the decay becomes _____with time. Envelope of bowed String The envelope of a bowed note has a less rapid _____ and a quick _____. Sustain lasts as long as bowing continues sustain has fairly constant ______

the release is similar to decay of plucked string. Violin Strings G3, D4, A4, E5 each tuned a Recall a fifth is a ratio of an interval of an interval of

Violin Demo G3, D4, A4, E5 Can you play G4 on D-string? by making the string play harmonics? Demonstrate open notes (), fingering (__), tuning (__), interval, pizzicato vs bowing, play something Guitar Strings

E 2, A 2 , D 3, G 3, B 3, E 4 (12 string has 6 pairs, same note or octave) each tuned a except E:B, which is a fourth is about : major third is about: Guitar Strings E2, A2, D3, G3, B3, E4 Can you play F2 on E-string? _______ higher

making the string ______ by factor of ______ Frets placed about 1/18 distance from the previous fret (or nut) to bridge fig 10.39 18:17 = 1/17.817 more accurate than 1/18 Announce: Exam Friday Chapters

lectures: homework Provided Summary Normal modes of string harmonics Non-normal modes

fundamental + specific overtones bowed vs plucked Dependence of pitch on density, tension, length Intervals Envelope bowed vs plucked

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