A Brief Overview of the DCEO / ComEd Energy Efficiency and ...
How to Reduce Energy Use in Your Labs by Up to 50% Big Ten & Friends Conference October 10, 2016 iHotel, Vytenis Milunas, Director of Project Champaign, IL Management University of IllinoisChicago Dan Doyle, Chairman Grumman/Butkus Course Description Labs have high exhaust requirements and large equipment loads, contributing to energy usage intensities five to ten times those of typical office buildings. Facilities in hot and humid climates face special challenges: most hours of the year require cooling, and 100% outside air systems have large latent
energy loads. This presentation will discuss general strategies for designing and operating high-performance, energyefficient laboratories, with an emphasis on features to enhance the performance of HVAC systems. Air handling systems usually account for the largest amount of energy usage in a lab and are therefore the most important component of an energy-efficient system. First, airflow should be reduced as much as possible. Strategies such as reducing cooling loads in the space, reducing the air exhausted by fume hoods and other exhaust sources, and reducing the required air change Learning Objectives At the end of this session, participants will be able to: 1. Identify energy-efficiency considerations for laboratory planning 2. Identify ways to reduce cooling loads with efficient equipment and lighting 3. Describe the process for determining an appropriate airflow to a lab space, and strategies for reducing airflow 4. Summarize options for reducing the energy required for cooling and reheat 5. Understand additional elements of high-performance laboratory design
6. Summarize best practice strategies for achieving energy usage reductions of up to 50% 7. Summarize options to enhance HVAC system performance Why Focus on Laboratories? Labs are energyintensive. Labs21 / I2SL data indicates that labs consume about 3-8 times as much energy as a typical office building. On some campuses, labs consume twothirds of total campus energy usage. Most existing labs can reduce energy use by 30% to 50% with existing, costeffective
technology . Reducing laboratory energy use will significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. 4 Benefits of a HighPerformance Lab Reduced operating costs. Improved environmental quality. Expanded capacity. Increased health, safety, and worker productivity. Improved maintenance and reliability. Enhanced community relations. Superior recruitment and retention of scientists. 5
Potential Savings This presentation provides specific strategies that can result in energyefficient and eco-friendly laboratory designs, reducing energy use by as much as 30% to 50% (compared with a laboratory designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 90.1) Energy Use (Percentage of Standard Design) 100% Strategy Standard Building Design Energy Star and High Efficiency Equipment High Efficiency Lighting Occupancy Sensors for Lighting and Equipment Daylighting Controls Variable Air Volume Air Distribution Demand Control Ventilation Enthalpy Recovery Wheel 50% Enthalpy Recovery Wheel with Passive Desiccant Dehumidification
6 Energy-Efficiency Strategies 7 Energy-Efficiency Strategies: Step 1 Incorporate lowest cost/ highest energy-savings features first. Minimize Design Airflow Requirements: Use energy efficient lighting and equipment to reduce cooling load Reduce lab air changes per hour Use low-flow fume hoods 8 Use the Most Efficient Lighting Option Exit signs
LCDs Stairwells two-position LEDs Outdoor/ parking structures LEDs General office T8s/T5s or LEDs Occupancy sensors Photocell 9 Select and Specify Energy-Efficient Lighting Products
Lamps Ballasts Fixtures Life-cycle cost effectivene ss Lamp type Lumens/W Life hours T-12 FL 80 L/W 24,000 HR T-8 FL
80-100 L/W 24,000 - 30,000 HR T-5 FL 90-100 L/W 24,000 -30,000 HR T-8 FL ELL 85-95 L/W 46,000 -50,000 HR LED 100-110 L/W * 50,000 HR CREE and Phillips 200 L/ W LED * Omni-directional
1 Minimize Process and Equipment Energy Use Stanford Universitys 2014 survey of equipment energy consumption indicates that lab freezers, incubators, water baths, refrigerators, and autoclave/sterili zers represent 1 Use Energy-Efficient Equipment
Research-grade autoclaves are available that use significantly less energy and water than medical-grade units Research-grade is for light duty (less than five cycles per day) Medical vs. Research Medical-Grade Research-Grade Vacuum pumps No vacuum pump necessary Inefficient steam jackets No steam jacket necessary Must be run 24/7 or risk harm to the unit Can be powered down for long periods
High-throughput: designed for 24/7 hospital use, over a dozen cycles per day Consumes up to 150 gallons of water per cycle (water conservation kits can reduce this to 50 gallons per cycle) Light duty: less than five cycles per day Consumes as little as 4 gallons per cycle 1 Use Energy-Efficient Equipment Much more efficient freezers are now available Ultra-low temperature freezers with Stirling engines; 30% to 50% savings Minimize the number of freezers
and other large energy-consuming equipment Centralize to allow equipment to be Check out the North American Laboratory Freezer Challenge: http ://freezerchallenge.org 1 Minimize Design Airflow Requirements Determine driver of lab airflow rate largest of: 1. Make-up air required to offset the total exhaust (fume hoods, snorkel exhausts,
some types of biosafety cabinets). 2. The required lab air change rate (ACH). 1 Minimize Design Airflow Requirements Minimize number of hoods Minimize size of hoods (can a 4-ft hood suffice in lieu of a 6-ft version?) Use low-flow / highperformance hoods 1
Minimize Design Airflow Requirements Scrutinize lab air change rates (ACH): The Labs21 Design Guide section on room air change rates states: The conventional,national consensus standard has been 4 to 6 outside air changes per hour recommended for a safe B- occupancy laboratory. Suggest using 4 ACH maximum in standard laboratories. Consider increasing ACH only when absolutely necessary, such as for carcinogenic materials. 1 Typical ACH Guidelines Agency ASHRAE Lab Guides
4 ACH Unoccupied Lab 8 ACH Occupied Lab 4-12 ACH 4 ACH Unoccupied Lab 8 ACH Occupied Lab 4-12 ACH Recommends 4-12 ACH Ventilation depends on the generation rate and toxicity of the contaminant and not the size of the room. Prescriptive ACH is not appropriate. Rate shall be established by the owner! 1 Minimize Design Airflow Requirements Next, determine airflow required to cool the lab
Chica go Thermal load calculations shall be performed in accordance with ASHRAE procedures 1 Minimize Design Airflow Strategy to reduce cooling airflow: Requirements If thermal loads are high and driving the airflow, consider decoupling the thermal load from the room airflow by using waterbased cooling: o Chilled beams o Fan coil units Be careful of condensation on chilled
beams if humid air can enter the space. 1 Energy-Efficiency Strategies: Step 2 Incorporate the next-highest level on the pyramid still relatively low cost, with high energy savings. Control Airflow: VAV fume hoods and lab exhaust VAV make-up and suppy air Demand-based control of lab air change rates Optimize exhaust airflow 2 Control Airflow
Airflow is actively modulated below the design maximum during part load or unoccupied conditions. Reduction is in response to certain criteria in the lab: Temperature, sash position, air quality This reduces fan, heating, cooling and dehumidificatio n energy consumption at
the AHU. 2 Control Airflow Fume hoods Use variable air volume (VAV) exhaust devices: o o Allows for reduction of flow when sash is not fully open or when hood is not in use. Consider occupancy sensors, auto sash closers
Use VAV in combination with high-performance (low-flow) fume hoods. 2 Control Airflow Specify ventilated cage racks in animal labs Lower room air change rates (from 10 to 15 to 8 to 10) Provide better conditions for the animals Reduce frequency of cage changes 2
Control Airflow VAV terminal units (such as Venturi valves) will be required on: Each fume hood Groups of snorkels H General Exhaust Valve VAV Supply Air Valve Some biosafety cabinets Supply air from AHU Fume
Hood Exhaust Valve 2 Control Airflow Demand-based ventilation controls Actively measures quality of air in labs by sensing for certain chemicals. Lab air change rates are reduced when not necessary to control air quality in the
lab. 2 Energy-Efficiency Strategies: Step 3 Incorporate the third-highest level on the pyramid mid-range cost with good energy savings. Low Pressure Drop Design: Use low pressure drop AHU Size ducts and pipes for low pressure drop 2 Low Pressure Drop Design 95% MERV 14 Filter Typical Pressure Drops Filter Type Pressure Drop (inches WG)* Standard 12-inch-deep box-style rigid media 0.61
filters 12-inch-deep low pressure drop V0.37 bank type mini-pleat filters Electronic filters 0.20 *Initial clean filter pressure drops @ 500 fpm 2 Low Pressure Drop Design Up-size cross section of AHU to reduce face velocity and pressure drop across filters, cooling coils, etc. Traditional design: 500 fpm Low pressure drop design: 300 fpm (or as low as space allows)
2 Low Pressure Drop Design For a 10,000 cfm AHU, The net incremental cost is cross-sectional small: dimensions will increase Bigger sheet metal box from: Coils, filters are larger 5 ft wide by 4 ft Motors,VFDs are smaller tall Can often eliminate to sound attenuators, mist eliminators 6 ft wide by 5.5 ft Result: Simple, reliable tall energy savings over the life of the AHU!
Can never be overridden 2 Low Pressure Drop Design Reducing pressure drop in AHU reduces the power required to drive the fan: Fan at 10,000 cfm and 7 w. g. static pressure = 13.5 kW/18.0 bhp Fan at 10,000 cfm and 4 w. g. static pressure = 5.8 kW/7.8 bhp 3 Low Pressure Drop Design Options analysis for 30,000-cfm CV AHU:
Base case (500 fpm): Pre and secondary filters, preheat coil, cooling coil, single centrifugal fan, conventional final filters, 5-ft sound attenuators Option 1 (400 fpm): Pre and secondary filters, preheat coil, cooling coil, fan array, low pressure drop final filters, 3-ft sound attenuators Option 2 (300 fpm): Pre filters, preheat coil, cooling coil, fan array, low pressure drop final filters, no sound attenuators 3 Low Pressure Drop Design 400 fpm design is usually a no brainer! Between 300 fpm and 400 fpm will have a Design Utility
Annual AHU Simpl good payback Static Demand Pressu re First Cost Energy Reduction Compared With Base Case e Payba ck - Side
Manageme nt Incentive Base case (500 fpm) Option 1 (400 fpm) 8.5 w.g. $150,000 - - 6.0 w.g. $145,000 $4,400 Immediate
$3,655 Option 2 (300 fpm) 4.5 w.g. $160,000 $10,200 Two months $8,384 3 Optimize (Minimize) Exhaust Airflow: Conventional Design Win d Exhaust Fan
Bypass Damper ReEntrainment of Contaminated Air Plenu m Supply Fan Duct Fume Hood Balco ny 3 Exhaust Energy Reduction Solutions Air quality sensor Slightly higher stacks, 4-5 feet Variable speed fans (reduce exhaust fan
flows) Install wind-responsive controls. Reduce or eliminate bypass air 3 Energy-Efficiency Strategies: Step 4 Incorporate energy recovery higher energy savings for higher cost. Energy Recovery Methods: Enthalpy and desiccant wheels Heat pipes Plate heat exchangers Pumped run-around systems 3 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery
Now may be required by IECC, depending on airflow and & OA Sample code energy recovery requirements (ASHRAE 90.1-2010): HR required if AHU>5,500 and Grand Rapids (Zonecfm 5A) 30%4,500 cfm and 40%3,500 cfm and 50%2,000 cfm and 60%1,000 cfm and 70%80% 3
Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Wheels Enthalpy and desiccant Highest effective recovery Restrictions: not for hazardous exhaust Need 3 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Heat pipe Effective recovery Little
maintenance No moving parts Requires less space than wheels VAPOR 3 Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Pumped runaround Glycol or refrigeran t Less effective recovery Maintena nce required Airstreams can be far
apart 3 UIC College of Pharmacy Energy Recovery Monthly Steam Comparison 3,000,000 2,500,000 MB H 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Months Purchased Steam Existing New
Purchased Steam 4 UIC College of Pharmacy Energy Recovery Monthly Chilled Water Comparison Therm s 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 - Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Jun
Dec Purchased Chilled Water Purchased Chilled Water Existing New 4 Benchmarking / Best Practices What are other highperforming lab facilities doing? 4 Benchmarking / Best Practices University of California, Irvine: Smart Labs Initiative http://www.ehs.uci.edu/programs/energy/index. html Goal: Outperform ASHRAE Standard 90.1/CA Title 24 by 50% Exceeded 50% reduction from
base year to 2016 Combine initiatives such as: Demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) 4 UC-Irvine Smart Lab Parameters Current Best Practice Air-handler/filtration airspeeds Total system (supply + exhaust) pressure drop Duct noise attenuators Occupied lab air changes/hr (ACH) Night air-change setback (unoccupied) Low-flow/high-performance fume hoods Fume hood face velocities Fume hood face velocities (unoccupied) Fume hood auto-closers
400 ft/min. max 6 in. w.g. Few 6 ACH No setback No 100 FPM 350 ft/min. max <5 in. w.g. (incl. dirty filter allowance) None 4 ACH w/contaminant sensing 2 ACH w/ occupancy + contaminant sensing + no thermal inputs during setbacks Yes, where hood density warrants 70 FPM (low-flow hoods) 100 FPM 40 FPM (low-flow hoods) None
Where hood density is high Exhaust stack discharge velocity ~3,500 FPM Lab illumination power-density 0.9 watt/SF Fixtures near windows on daylight sensors Energy Star freezers and refrigerators Outperform CA Title 24 by Smart Lab Parameters Reduce or eliminate bypass air, windresponsive controls 0.6 watt/SF w/LED task lighting No Yes
No Yes 20-25% 50% 4 University of Illinois at Chicago Molecular Biology Research Building Energy Facility Audit 242,000-squarefoot laboratory building on urban campus Project Thirteen energy cost reduction measures (ECMs) were Identified. Estimated annual energy cost savings were
$844,483, representing a 12.8% ROI and a 46% energy cost reduction. ECMs focused Converting the air distribution on: system from CV to VAV Recovering heat from exhaust Reducing occupancy-related energy usage Optimizing control sequences Resetting static pressure setpoints Improving efficiency of constant-flow CHW/CW pumps Revising O&M procedures for efficiency and optimal use of staff hours Question s?
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