A Changing Nation - Quia

A Changing Nation - Quia

A Changing Nation 1815-1840 Building a National Identity Section 1 James Monroe 5th President President James Monroe Republican Defeated Rufus King (Federalist) 183-34 Federalist Party losing power

Wanted to promote national unity Goodwill circuit of middle/northern states Warmly greeting in Conn. and Mass. Old arguments from War of 1812 fading Local newspaper described sense of national unity Era of Good Feeling Ran for reelection in 1820 unopposed The Era of Good Feeling Many

Americans believed the federal government should work to increase the economic prosperity in all regions of US Even the Republicans were in favor Big change in belief Most had favored states rights Three new voices in Congress Great Triumvirate Immortal Trio Building the National Economy

Congressman from Kentucky Speaker of the House Spoke for people in the West Henry of the West Needed better roads and canals to transport goods Henry Clay Representative from

South Carolina Spoke for the interests of the South First defender of national unity later states rights Opposed tariffs raised the price of goods that Southerners bought John C. Calhoun Lawyer in New Hampshire

Elected in 1827 Senator from Mass. The Great Orator Spoke for the Northeast Initially was against tariffs But supported them way of protecting Northeast industry Daniel Webster First Bank of the United States

Created by Congress 1791 Charter (gives rights to a person or company) ran out in 1811 Economy suffered states banks issued too much money made too many loans increase in spending, rising prices Second Bank of the United States 1816 20 year charter privately owned Lent money to individuals Controlled the money supply

Boosted American business Second Bank of the United States Foreign competition Under Embargo Act British goods kept out American industry grew rapidly Factories made textiles, smelted iron After War of 1812

British factories produced goods cheaper Dumping selling goods in another country below market prices Caused dozens of New England businesses to fail, investments collapsed, owners turned to Congress for help Economy after War of 1812 Put a tax on foreign textiles, iron, leather goods, paper and other products 1818, 1824 higher tariffs Popular in the North protected factories

Resented in the South Forced Southerners to pay more for goods John C. Calhoun vocal foe Felt northern manufacturers got rich at expense of the South Tariff of 1816 Proposed by Henry Clay High tariffs and federal program of public works would help all regions Northern wealth buy southern and western products Revenue for the federal government

Use revenues for infrastructure roads, bridges Never fully became policy Madison/Monroe refused to support some projects Southerners continued to oppose tariffs American System McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Attempt by Maryland to put a tax on the branch

of the 2nd Bank of the United States Bank refused to pay the tax Chief Justice John Marshall Ruled that states had no power to interfere with a federal institution State cannot pass any law that violates a federal law Strengthened power of federal government Later -will be used to expand federal power Supreme Court Rulings Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

Defended by Daniel Webster - graduate Court ruled that the charter of Dartmouth was a private contract agreement between two or more parties that can be enforced by law Constitution protects private contracts Court is protecting private businesses Promoting capitalism Economic system in which privately owned businesses compete in a free market Supreme Court Rulings Gibbons

v. Ogden (1824) Ruled that new York State could not give a steamboat company a monopoly to carry passengers on the Hudson River Court ruled that travel on the Hudson included stops in New Jersey and New York Interstate commerce trade between two or more states Ruled that under the Constitution only Congress can regulate interstate commerce Strengthened the federal government at the expense of the states

Supreme Court Rulings Dealing With Other Nations Section 2 After the Louisiana Purchase United States and Haiti are the only lands not controlled by European nations Spain controlled most of Central and South America Spains power had steadily weakened especially in Florida

Relations with Spain Spain could not stop runaway slaves from Georgia and Alabama Many former slaves joined the Seminole Nation Seminoles raided American settlements across the border 1817 US sent Andrew Jackson to recapture slaves Florida

Went beyond his orders Attacked and destroyed Seminole villages Seized two Spanish towns Forced the governor to flee Florida Spain was too weak to protect Florida Gave up Florida Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the US Florida to the US American

and French revolutions inspired Latin America Revolutionary movements grew Spanish Colonies Win Independence 1810 -Father Miguel Hidalgo organized an army of Native Americans - freed provinces 1811 Hidalgo captured ended revolt 1820 Revolution - Spain couldnt stop 1821 Spain agreed to independence First ruled by emperor

1823 monarchy overthrown 1823 new constitution made Mexico a federal republic of 9 states/4 territories Mexico Simon Bolivar Liberator 1819 - led march from Venezuela over the Andes to Columbia defeated Spanish Became president of the independent Republic of Great Colombia Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama

Independence for South America People declared independence in 1821 Formed the United provinces of Central America Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala Independence for Central America 1822 Brazil announced its independence

from Portugal By 1825 most parts of Latin America were independent Future of these new countries uncertain France and Russia might help Spain regain its colonies Brazil and North America Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams were worried British were worried and wanted to issue a joint statement

Adams advised Monroe to act alone Monroe stated to Congress the Monroe Doctrine US would not allow European nations to create colonies or interfere with free nations US would consider any attempt as dangerous to our peace Monroe Doctrine Remained a British colony despite uprisings Upper Canada English Lower Canada French

Act of Union of 1841 Merged two parts into a single unit of govt Britain gave Canada powers of self-government Disagreements over boundaries Eventually developed excellent relations between Canada and United States Canada The Age of Jackson Section 3 Candidates for President

John Quincy Adams (Massachusetts) Henry Clay (Kentucky, Speaker of the House) William Crawford (Georgia) Andrew Jackson (Tennessee) Jackson received the most electoral votes but not the majority. Choice between Adams, Jackson went to the House for vote Clay used influence to get Adams elected Adams was the last of the Federalists The Election of 1824 Son

of John Adams Had been an ambassador under Washington Well respected Northerner Senator from Massachusetts Negotiated end of War of 1812 Secretary of State under Monroe Wrote the treaty to take Florida Helped frame the Monroe Doctrine After elected President -named Henry Clay as Secretary of State Jackson accused them of a corrupt bargain

John Quincy Adams 6th President Miserable four years Admired for his intelligence Lonely, cold man with a sharp tongue Wanted a national university, roads, canals, naval academy Never got along with Congress they refused to do what he asked Jackson and followers criticized his administration Lost the election of 1828 to Jackson

Adamss Presidency States extended suffrage (right to vote) States dropped property owner requirement Most male adults could vote No women, freed blacks or slaves States changing way to elect electors Voters picked electors in 18/24 states

Democracy at Work 1824 Election Brought back two party system Republican party split The most democratic groups became Democratic Republican party Dropped the Republican Known as Democratic Party Adams ran as the National Republican

Jackson ran as the Democratic New Politics 1831 Election Clay (National Republican) Jackson (Democrats) 1836 Election Anti Jackson forces (Whigs)

Jackson (Democrats) 1836-1852 two major political parties Whigs Democrats Political Parties Before 1831 Party members of Congress held caucus

Meeting of members of political party Small group chose candidate Currently still done in Iowa primary After 1831 National nominating convention -large meetings of party delegates to choose candidates for office Opened the nominating process to many more More democratic How Political Parties Choose Their

Candidates Born in a log cabin on the border of the Carolinas Orphan at 14, brave, ambitious, tough Learned to read Joined the Revolutionary Army at early age good horseman Studied law after the war Elected general of Tennessee army to fight against the Creek Indians Excellent general

Andrew Jackson Belief in ordinary people Should vote and hold public office 3 times more people voted in 1828 as 1824 Supporters of Jackson Did not trust government Opposed special privileges for wealthy Suspicious of banks

Growing sectional and class divisions Jackson did best in west and south with small business, artisans and workers Adams strength in New England Supporters of Andrew Jackson Victory for the common man Inauguration March 1829

1000s of ordinary working people Jackson rode a horse to the White House 20,000 crowded into the White House Misbehaved broke furniture, glassware Opponents were shocked Jackson Wins/Inauguration Replaced government officials with his supporters (over two terms - 20%) Jackson openly admitted it One supporter claimed to the victors belongs the spoils

Spoils system practice of rewarding government jovbs to loyal supporters of the party that wins an elections Spoils of Victory Indian Removal Section 4 Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek Farmers, lived in small towns Mississippi, Alabama, N Georgia, W South

Carolina, S Tennessee Seminoles Florida Combination of Creeks, Runaway slave, natives of Florida Native Americans/Southeast Adopted some white customs Had own schools, some spoke English Converted to Christianity Ran businesses like lumber mills

Had a written alphabet for own language Created by Sequoyah 1827 -Established a government based on a written constitution Claimed status as a separate nation Started newspaper in English and native language Cherokees White settlers wanted the fertile lands

held by the Southeastern Indians Whites wanted it for cotton plantations Idea to move Indians west of Mississippi started under Jefferson By moving he felt they would keep their heritage Monroe signed treaties with Indian groups of the Northwest Territory to move west and give up their lands Conflict Over Land Would not move

Monroe suggested a plan to move them west of Mississippi River Nothing happened except Southerner complained Georgia passed law forcing Creeks to give up land Didnt recognize the Cherokee Nation and passed a similar law against Cherokees Southeastern Indians Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

Court refused to stop Georgia from enforcing the law to move Cherokees Worcester V. Georgia (1832) Court declared that Georgia laws can have no force within Cherokee territory Chief Justice Marshall wrote that treaties are supreme law of the land under the Constitution Treaties signed by US guaranteed certain lands to Native Americans Georgias Actions - Lawsuits Andrew

Jackson wanted to remove the Natives Pushed the law through that give him the authority to offer Native Americans land west of the Mississippi in exchange for their lands in the East. Provided money to pay for the land Believing they had no choice, the Native Americans signed the treaties to give up their lands. Indian Removal Act of 1830

Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830) Marched west to Oklahoma by American soldiers Not provided with enough tents, food, blankets, winter clothes/shoes Heavy rain/snow Tremendous suffering Removal of the Chocktaws Held out for a few years

1838 President Martin Van Buren forced them to move 7000 soldiers forced 15,000 Cherokees Marched hundreds of miles Little food/shelter in rain and snow 4000 died in inhumane conditions Trail of Tears Rebuild their lives - difficult conditions Removal of Cherokees States Rights and the Economy Section 5

2nd National Bank Strong support from business Safe place for Nations money Stabilzed the currency Restricted loans made by state banks Limited money loaned to farmers to buy land Southerners/Westerners affected the most The Bank War Jackson

distrusted Bank of the US Felt it was controlled by rich Nicolas Biddle Banks president wealthy Philadelphian Known for favors for powerful politicians Biddle got Congress to renew Banks charter 4 years early Jackson vetoed it Election of 1832 big issue Henry Clay favored the Bank Jackson hated the bank Jackson won

Andrew Jackson versus Bank Jacksons victory over the Bank Increased Presidential powers Could face down powerful opponents in Congress Banks charter ran out Ceased to exist No bank to handle economic crisis Government is based on federalism

Division of power between states and federal 10th Amendment states that any powers not specifically given to the federal government is reserved for the states Issue of separation of powers not resolved Question of States Rights Congress

passed 1828 tariff law Increased tariff on iron, textiles and other products Favored industrial North/some parts of West Forced Southerners to pay more for manufactured goods The Nullification Crisis Vice President John Calhoun

President of the Senate Argued that states had the rights of nullification action by a state that cancels federal law to which the state objects Based his theory on how the nation was formed as an agreement between various states After the Union was formed each state kept certain powers to nullify federal laws that the people felt was unfair John Calhoun Daniel

Webster Senator/Massachusetts Argued that Union was not formed by states but by the entire American people Dramatic speech in Senate We are all agents of the same supreme power, the people. President Andrew Jackson Defended the Union directly at Calhoun Our Federal Union it must be preserved Calhoun responded The Union next to our liberty, the most dear

Against Nullification 1832 Congress passed new tariff law Lowered some tariffs Raised tariffs on iron and textiles SC called a state convention Voted to nullify tariffs Warned the federal government not to use force to impose the tariffs

If it did, SC would secede from the Union South Carolina Threatens to Secede Asked Congress for law to force collection Supported Compromise bill to lower tariffs Congress SC passed both

repealed tariff nullification Little support from other states Crisis settle peacefully Jackson defended federal power States rights supporters setback Jackson retired after two terms Jacksons Response Whigs ran 3 candidates

Hoped to send election to the House Martin Van Buren New York son of tavern owner Born in US after it became a country Lawyer not very personable Realized that by association with Andrew Jackson, he would go further Secretary of State under Jacksons 1st term Vice President under Jacksons 2nd term Hand picked by Jackson to run - victorious Election of 1836

Economic crisis in Britain Buying less cotton prices fell American banks couldnt collect on loans Many banks Failed No US Bank to stabilize economy Blamed Van Buren Panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren ran for reelection

Criticized for the economic crisis Whigs ran William Henry Harrison Hero of the Battle of Tippicanoe Born into wealth in Ohio Studied to be a doctor then joined the army Skillful general in War of 1812 Left for a quiet life Wanted a peoples hero to beat Van Buren Played on the log cabin image Called Van Buren wealthy who drank foreign wines and ate too much rich food

Election of 1840 Harrison wins election easily 9th President Longest inauguration speech 1 hr 45 min Took office long lines of office seekers Caught a cold pneumonia Died one month after inauguration Shortest presidency in history

The Presidency of William Henry Harrison Whigs asked John Tyler to be Vice President Wanted someone Balance the Whig ticket Get Southern votes Not well know outside of Virginia Believed in States rights

Service in Congress showed his beliefs Fathers friend was Thomas Jefferson Whigs never considered he would be the 10 th President of the United States John Tyler

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