A New Look at the Major Features of Evolution Stevan J. Arnold Department of Integrative Biology Oregon State University Outline Criteria for the conservation of individual
species G. L. Simpsons modes of evolution Evolution of body size: data Evolution of body size: models The concept of quantum evolution The concept illustrated with African birds A new criterion for the conservation
Criteria for conservation Threatened status
Ecological importance (e.g., keystone species) Useful to humans Charisma (e.g., flagship species) Uniqueness (e.g., aardvark) Simpsons two evolutionary modes: phyletic evolution and quantum evolution
Simpson 1944 Simpsons concept of quantum evolution Simpson 1944 Modern version of quantum evolution
Lande 1976 Uyeda et al. 2011 Uyeda et al. 2011 Uyeda et al. 2011
65% change in body size Uyeda et al. 2011 The Blunderbuss Pattern Uyeda et al. 2011
The multiple-burst model: a process that produces quantum evolution (peak movement, evolution of the lineage mean) Lineage mean A single lineage
Time (generations) Uyeda et al. 2011 White noise distribution (dashed)
B Burst size distribution (solid) Divergence
The model that best fits the data A has two modes: phyletic & quantum Burst timing distribution (mean time between bursts = 25 my) Uyeda et al. 2011
Probability Probability C Interval (years)
Can we detect quantum evolution in the birds of Central Africa? Provisos
Phylogeny ignored Exclusive focus on body size Measure of body size includes tail Focus on Central Africa ignores relatives elsewhere
No quantum evolution Quantum evolution of Great Blue Turaco Quantum evolution of ground hornbills
Quantum evolution of the Giant Kingfisher Criteria for conservation
Threatened status Ecological importance (e.g., keystone species) Useful to humans Charisma (e.g., flagship species) Uniqueness (e.g., aardvark)
Replacement time (e.g., 25 million years 25 million years for a ground hornbill) Conclusions To account for evolutionary pattern in a large data set we need a model with two modes: phyletic and quantum. Quantum evolutionary events can lead to rapid,
substantial evolution but they are rare, with an average waiting time of 25 million years. Some families of birds in Central Africa appear to have experienced quantum evolution (e.g., hornbills, kingfishers, and turacos). References Simpson, G. L. 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Columbia Univ.
Press. Simpson, G. L. 1954. The Major Features of Evolution. Columbia Univ. Press. Lande, R. 1976. Uyeda, J., T. Hansen, S. J. Arnold, J. Pienaar. 2011. The million-year wait for evolutionary bursts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. U.S.A. Arnold, S. J. 2014. Phenotypic evolution, the ongoing synthesis.
American Naturlist Van Perlo, Ber. 2002. Birds of Western and Central Africa. Princeton Univ. Press. Acknowledgements PhD advisor: Arnold Kluge Research collaborators: Suzanne Estes, Josef Uyeda, Thomas Hansen, Jason Pienaar
Data: Phil Gingerich, Andrew Hendry, Michael Kinnison NSF OPUS program: Mark Courtney
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