A New Look at the Major Features of Evolution

A New Look at the Major Features of Evolution

A New Look at the Major Features of Evolution Stevan J. Arnold Department of Integrative Biology Oregon State University Outline Criteria for the conservation of individual

species G. L. Simpsons modes of evolution Evolution of body size: data Evolution of body size: models The concept of quantum evolution The concept illustrated with African birds A new criterion for the conservation

Criteria for conservation Threatened status

Ecological importance (e.g., keystone species) Useful to humans Charisma (e.g., flagship species) Uniqueness (e.g., aardvark) Simpsons two evolutionary modes: phyletic evolution and quantum evolution

Simpson 1944 Simpsons concept of quantum evolution Simpson 1944 Modern version of quantum evolution

Lande 1976 Uyeda et al. 2011 Uyeda et al. 2011 Uyeda et al. 2011

65% change in body size Uyeda et al. 2011 The Blunderbuss Pattern Uyeda et al. 2011

The multiple-burst model: a process that produces quantum evolution (peak movement, evolution of the lineage mean) Lineage mean A single lineage

Time (generations) Uyeda et al. 2011 White noise distribution (dashed)

B Burst size distribution (solid) Divergence

The model that best fits the data A has two modes: phyletic & quantum Burst timing distribution (mean time between bursts = 25 my) Uyeda et al. 2011

Probability Probability C Interval (years)

Can we detect quantum evolution in the birds of Central Africa? Provisos

Phylogeny ignored Exclusive focus on body size Measure of body size includes tail Focus on Central Africa ignores relatives elsewhere

No quantum evolution Quantum evolution of Great Blue Turaco Quantum evolution of ground hornbills

Quantum evolution of the Giant Kingfisher Criteria for conservation

Threatened status Ecological importance (e.g., keystone species) Useful to humans Charisma (e.g., flagship species) Uniqueness (e.g., aardvark)

Replacement time (e.g., 25 million years 25 million years for a ground hornbill) Conclusions To account for evolutionary pattern in a large data set we need a model with two modes: phyletic and quantum. Quantum evolutionary events can lead to rapid,

substantial evolution but they are rare, with an average waiting time of 25 million years. Some families of birds in Central Africa appear to have experienced quantum evolution (e.g., hornbills, kingfishers, and turacos). References Simpson, G. L. 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Columbia Univ.

Press. Simpson, G. L. 1954. The Major Features of Evolution. Columbia Univ. Press. Lande, R. 1976. Uyeda, J., T. Hansen, S. J. Arnold, J. Pienaar. 2011. The million-year wait for evolutionary bursts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. U.S.A. Arnold, S. J. 2014. Phenotypic evolution, the ongoing synthesis.

American Naturlist Van Perlo, Ber. 2002. Birds of Western and Central Africa. Princeton Univ. Press. Acknowledgements PhD advisor: Arnold Kluge Research collaborators: Suzanne Estes, Josef Uyeda, Thomas Hansen, Jason Pienaar

Data: Phil Gingerich, Andrew Hendry, Michael Kinnison NSF OPUS program: Mark Courtney

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Individual & Social Behaviour Instructor: Kelly Arbeau E-mail:

    Individual & Social Behaviour Instructor: Kelly Arbeau E-mail:

    Update: WebCT Both department IT coordinator + U of A WebCT have been contacted Full notes for today's lecture will be posted (rather than partial slides) Thanks to those of you who made me aware of this issue Update: Clock...
  • Warm-up 4.1

    Warm-up 4.1

    Warm-up 4.1 At which vertex is the objective function C = 3x + y maximized? A(0,0); B(6,0); C(2,6); D(3,5); E(0,5) Which point is a solution of y > x2 + 5?
  • GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)

    GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)

    However, distribution of this increasing wealth around the mean is a growing internal political problem in both countries. Finally, while it is hard to see in this presentation of the data, the growth rate of the GDP/capita is much higher...
  • Diapositiva 1

    Diapositiva 1

    Sidonio Apollinare, Epistula I, 10- 14 (Arles, a. 461): Postridie jussit Augustus (Maioranus) ut epulo suo circensibus ludis interessemus. Primus jacebat cornu sinistro consul ordinarius Severinus, vir inter ingentes principum motus atque inaequalem reipublicae statum gratiae semper aequalis.
  • The Role of the President and the Executive Branch

    The Role of the President and the Executive Branch

    Constitutional Powers of the President and the executive branch . Congressional powers and responsibilities. 2. ... Formal Obligations between US and foreign governments. ... "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing...
  • Unité 1 - MADAME VOLPATTI

    Unité 1 - MADAME VOLPATTI

    Ces questions étaient assez pour défaire le gouvernement libéral de Laurier en 1911 mettant fin à « L'Age d'or de Laurier ». La réciprocité a échoué. Les 2 questions qui ont aidé à défaire les Libéraux de Laurier étaient: *La...
  • [Business Communication]

    [Business Communication]

    Bauska municipality. Activities, carried out: Workshop «Development cooperation experience and lessons learnt»wasorganised in August 2013. Participation of theGeorgian painter in an international art plein-air «Bauska summer 2013»
  • Fundamentals of Denials Management

    Fundamentals of Denials Management

    Robust query process to prevent under-coding, but don't over code. Quality queries. Productivity is important, but quality is key. Develop and periodically review processes. Develop hospital medical staff policies on commonly audited CCs/MCCs- AKI, malnutrition, ac resp failure, sepsis and...