A Structure-Aware Approach for Producing Informative Overview ...
Automatically Generating Wikipedia Articles: A Structure-Aware Approach Christina Sauper & Regina Barzilay MIT Causes Three M syndrome is thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. Human traits, including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the father and one from the mother. In recessive disorders, the condition does not occur unless an individual inherits the same defective gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. 19:16, 19:16,26 26June June2008 2008188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206(talk) (talk)(8,069 (8,069bytes) bytes) Added automatically generated summary of topic drawn from web resources Added automatically generated summary of topic drawn from web resources(see (seediscussion). discussion). 3-M syndrome From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
3-M syndrome (alternative names: dolichospondylic dysplasia, gloomy face syndrome and le Merrer syndrome), is a rare hereditary growth retardation syndrome. The name 3-M originates from the initials of the three authors Miller, McKusick and Malvaux who first reported the syndrome in literature.  Major symptoms of 3M syndrome are dwarfism, facial dysmorphia and skeletal Molecular Genetics abnormalities. No signs of mental retardation are reported. 3-M syndrome  is thought to3-M be inherited as was an autosomal genetic syndrome linked to recessive mutations of thetrait. Cullin7 gene that encodes a component of the Cullin7 E3 ubiquitin ligase. 01:24, 01:24,15 15May May2009 2009Rich RichFarmbrough Farmbrough(talk (talk||contribs) contribs)mm(7,687 (7,687bytes) bytes) clean upspelling of "et al.", removed Stub tag using AWB
clean up- spelling of "et al.", removed Stub tag using AWB Generating Overview Articles Goal: Generate multi-paragraph overview articles Biography for Matt Damon Mini Biography Matt Damon was born in 1970. His father, Kent Damon, a tax preparer, and his mother, Nancy Carlsson-Paige, a college Singapore professor, are now divorced. His older brother, Kyle (b. 1967), a sculptor. Matt's first film role was a one-line part in Singapore (Chinese:is ; pinyin: Xnjip; Malay: Pizza (1988). Hollywood's power brokers realized his Singapura; Tamil:Mystic , Cingkappr), potential a serious actor they saw him play a Gulf War officially the Republic of as Singapore, is anwhen island addicttipin Courage city-state located vet-turned-heroin at the southern of theUnder Fire (1996). Malay Peninsula, lying 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator, south of the Malaysian state of Johor and north of Indonesia's Riau Islands. At 710.2 km2 (274.2 sq mi), Singapore, a microstate and the smallest
nation in Southeast Asia, is by orders of magnitude larger than Monaco and Vatican City. These, as well as San Marino, are the only other surviving sovereign city- Generating Overview Articles Goal: Generate multi-paragraph overview articles Related methods: Multi-document summarization New challenges: Coherence issues for long articles Breadth of information must be covered Large number of potential sources to select from Our approach: Use content templates Template Creation Articles on similar topics have similar structures Chickenpox Scarlet fever Chronic fatigue syndrome Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It generally starts with a vesicular skin rash appearing in two or three waves, mainly on the body and head rather than the hands and becoming itchy raw pockmarks, small open sores which heal mostly without scarring. Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an erythrogenic exotoxin released by Streptococcus pyogenes. The term Scarlatina may be used interchangeably with Scarlet Fever, though it is commonly used to indicate the less acute form of Scarlet Fever that is often seen since the beginning of the twentieth century. The defining symptoms of fibromyalgia are chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and heightened pain in response to pressure. Other
symptoms may include tingling of the skin, prolonged muscle spasms, weakness in the limbs, nerve pain, functional bowel disturbances, and chronic sleep disturbances. Diagnosis Diagnosing CFS Chickenpox is usually acquired by the inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets from an infected host. The highly contagious nature of VZV explains the epidemics of chickenpox that spread through schools as one child who is infected quickly spreads the virus to many classmates. Diagnosis of scarlet fever is clinical. The blood test shows marked leukocytosis with neutrophilia and conservated or increased eosinophils, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and Creactive protein (CRP), and elevation of antistreptolysin O titer. Blood culture is rarely positive, but the streptococci can usually be demonstrated in throat culture. There are no medical tests or physical signs to diagnose CFS, so testing is used to rule out other potential causes for symptoms. The most widely used clinical and research description of CFS is the CDC definition published in 1994. Using different case definitions may influence the types of patients selected and there is research to suggest subtypes of patients or disease exist. Signs and Symptoms Symptoms Causes Chickenpox is a highly infectious disease that spreads from person to person by direct contact or by air from an infected person's coughing or sneezing. Touching the fluid from a chickenpox blister can also spread the disease. A person with chickenpox is infectious from one to five days before the rash appears. The rash is the most striking sign of scarlet fever. It usually begins looking like a bad sunburn with tiny bumps, and it may itch. The
rash usually appears first on the neck and face, often leaving a clear unaffected area around the mouth. It spreads to the chest and back, then to the rest of the body. Prevention Treatment A varicella vaccine was first developed by Michiaki Takahashi in 1974 derived from the Oka strain. It has been available in the U.S. since 1995 to inoculate against the disease. Some countries require the varicella vaccination or an exemption before entering elementary school. Other than the occurrence of the diarrhea, the treatment and course of scarlet fever are no different from those of any strep throat. In case of penicillin allergy, clindamycin or erythromycin can be used with success. Patients should no longer be infectious after taking antibiotics for 24 hours.. The mechanisms and pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome are unknown. Research studies have examined and hypothesized about the possible biomedical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease, including oxidative stress, genetic predisposition, infection by viruses and pathogenic bacteria, hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis, immune dysfunction as well as mental and psychosocial factors. Pathophysiology Treatment Although there have been no formal clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical application of calamine lotion, a topical barrier preparation containing zinc oxide and one of the most commonly used interventions, it has an excellent safety profile. Symptoms The most commonly used diagnostic criteria and definition of CFS for research and clinical purposes was published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC definition of CFS requires two of the following criteria be fulfilled.
Prognosis A systematic review of 14 studies of the outcome of untreated people with CFS found that "the median full recovery rate was 5% (range 031%) and the median proportion of patients who improved during follow-up was 39.5% (range 863%). Return to work at follow-up ranged from 8 to 30% in the three studies that considered this outcome." Template specifies content and ordering Barzilay & Lee 2004; Elsner & Charniak 2007; Chen et. al. 2009 Template Creation Create an article template automatically using existing articles as examples 1. Cluster section titles 2. Select largest clusters 3. Order based on examples Example articles Chronic fatigue syndrome The defining symptoms of fibromyalgia are chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and heightened pain in response to pressure. Other symptoms may include tingling of the skin, prolonged muscle spasms, weakness in the limbs, nerve pain, functional bowel disturbances, and chronic sleep disturbances. Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection Diagnosing CFS Chickenpox with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It generally starts with a vesicular skin rash There are no medical tests or physical appearing signs toindiagnose two or three CFS, so waves, testingmainly is used ontothe body and head rather than the rule out other potential causes forhands symptoms. and becoming
The most itchy widely raw used pockmarks, clinical and small open sores which heal mostly research description of CFS is the CDC without definition scarring. published in 1994. Using different case definitions may influence the types of patients selected and there is research to suggest subtypes of patients or disease exist. Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an erythrogenic exotoxin released by Chickenpox is usually acquired by the inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets Streptococcus pyogenes. The term Scarlatina may be used interchangeably with from an infected host. The highly contagious nature of VZV explains the epidemics Scarlet Fever, though it is commonly used to indicate the less acute form of Scarlet The mechanisms and pathogenesisof of chickenpox chronic fatigue that spread syndrome through are schools unknown. as one child who is infected quickly Fever that is often seen since the beginning of the twentieth century. Research studies have examined and spreads hypothesized the virus about to many theclassmates. possible biomedical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease, including oxidative stress, genetic predisposition, infection by viruses and pathogenic bacteria, hypothalamicDiagnosis of scarlet fever is clinical. The blood test shows marked leukocytosis with pituitary-adrenal axis, immune dysfunction as mental and disease
psychosocial Chickenpoxas iswell a highly infectious that spreads from person to person by neutrophilia and conservated or increased eosinophils, high erythrocyte factors. direct contact or by air from an infected person's coughing or sneezing. Touching sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and elevation of the fluid from a chickenpox blister can also spread the disease. A person with antistreptolysin O titer. Blood culture is rarely positive, but the streptococci can chickenpox is infectious from one to five days before the rash appears. usually be demonstrated in throat culture. The most commonly used diagnostic criteria and definition of CFS for research and clinical purposes was published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC definition ofvaccine CFS requires two of the following A varicella was first developed by Michiaki Takahashi in 1974 derived from The rash is the most striking sign of scarlet fever. It usually begins looking like a bad criteria be fulfilled. the Oka strain. It has been available in the U.S. since 1995 to inoculate against the sunburn with tiny bumps, and it may itch. The rash usually appears first on the neck disease. Some countries require the varicella vaccination or an exemption before and face, often leaving a clear unaffected area around the mouth. It spreads to the entering elementary school. chest and back, then to the rest of the body. A systematic review of 14 studies of the outcome of untreated people with CFS found that "the median full recovery rate was 5% (range 031%) and the median proportion of patients who improved during there follow-up (range 863%). Although have was
been39.5% no formal clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of Other than occurrence of the diarrhea, the treatment and course of scarlet fever Return to work at follow-up ranged from 8 to 30%of in the three studies thatthe topical application calamine lotion, a topical barrier preparation containing zinc are no different from those of any strep throat. In case of penicillin allergy, considered this outcome." oxide and one of the most commonly used interventions, it has an excellent safety clindamycin or erythromycin can be used with success. Patients should no longer be profile. infectious after taking antibiotics for 24 hours.. Scarlet fever Pathophysiology Causes Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms Symptoms Prevention Symptoms Treatment
Treatment Prognosis Section clusters Template Our Method Candidate Retrieval Candidate Excerpts THIS TALK Joint Selection (Yahoo!) Disease template Diagnosis Causes Symptoms ry e u q Final article query ry que
Joint Selection: Input For each section, About 60 excerpts obtained via candidate retrieval Candidate excerpts for Causes Candidate excerpts for Treatment Macular Hole Conventional Treatment: A surgical procedure called vitrectomy is often used to treat holes that go all the way through the macula. The vitreous is removed to prevent it from pulling on the retina. It is replaced with a gas bubble that eventually fills with natural fluids. Following surgery, patients must usually keep their faces down for two or three weeks. This position allows the bubble to press against the macula and seal the hole. At the end of the 2-3 week period of strict face-down positioning, the patient is then permitted to resume a more normal upright posture. The air bubble itself, however, may take anywhere from 6-8 weeks following surgery to completely disappear. The air bubble is gradually resorbed by the body, and the vitreous cavity is then filled with liquid produced by cells in the front of the eye. Vitrectomy can lead to complications, most commonly an increase in how fast cataracts develop. Other less common complications include infection and retinal detachment either during surgery or afterward. Joint Selection: Output For each section Exactly one excerpt, chosen jointly across sections Together, these represent a complete article Diagnosis DNA banking is the storage of DNA (typically extracted from white blood cells) for possible future use. Because it is likely that testing methodology and our understanding of genes, mutations, and diseases will improve in M thesyndrome future, consideration should be given banking recessive Three is thought to be
inherited as anto autosomal DNA of affected individuals. banking is particularly relevantdiseases, in genetic trait. HumanDNA traits, including the classic genetic are situations the in which molecular genetic testing is available on a research product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the basis only.father and one from the mother. In recessive disorders, the condition Three M syndrome is an extremely rare inherited disorder that appears does not occur unless an individual inherits the numbers. same defective gene for 25 cases to affect males and females in equal Approximately the same have
trait been from reported each parent. If an individual receives one normal was first in the medical literature since the disorder gene and described one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for theto the last in 1972. The name "Three M syndrome" refers The treatment of Three M syndrome is directed toward the specific disease, but usually will not show symptoms. initials of symptoms three researchers (J.D.
Miller, V.A. McKusick, P. Malvaux) who that are apparent in each individual. Treatment may require were among first to identify the disorder and report their findingsPediatricians, in thethe coordinated efforts of a team of specialists. the medical literature. orthopedists, dental specialists, and/or other health care professionals Causes Symptoms Treatment may need to systematically and comprehensively plan an affected child's treatment. In some cases, orthopedic techniques, surgery, and/or other supportive techniques may be used to help treat certain skeletal abnormalities associated with Three M syndrome. Training Data No manual annotation required with Wikipedia data 1. Select existing articles from a given category 2. Retrieve candidates for each section using our candidate retrieval method 3. Mark examples based on similarity to original
Positive examples: cosine similarity > threshold Original article Chickenpox is usually acquired by the inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets from an infected host. The highly contagious nature of VZV explains the epidemics of chickenpox that spread through schools as one child who is infected quickly spreads the virus to many classmates. Retrieved candidates The average child develops 250 to 500 small, itchy, fluid-filled blisters over red spots on the skin. The blisters often appear first on the face, trunk, or scalp and spread from there. Appearance of the small blisters on the scalp, found in 80% of cases, clinches the diagnosis. 0.56 The cause of chicken pox is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV).. Chickenpox is highly contagious, and the chickenpox virus can be transmitted by numerous
methods including airborne transmission, direct contact, and droplet transmission. 0.87 3-M syndrome is a rare hereditary growth retardation syndrome. The name 3-M originates from the initials of the three authors Miller, McKusick and Malvaux who first reported the syndrome. Major symptoms are dwarfism, facial dysmorphia and skeletal abnormalities. 0.12 Excerpt Selection: Desiderata Select one excerpt per section Maximize fit into each section Prohibit excessive redundancy Diagnosis Causes Symptoms Formulate as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization problem Treatment Excerpt Selection: Objective i-1 i
xi,j = 1 xi,j+1 = 0 j+1 j Objective: Minimize total rank of selected excerpts xi,j = 1 if excerpt j is chosen for section i; 0 otherwise k n min rank ( xi , j ) xi , j i 1 j 1 Ranking Excerpts For each section i, rank excerpts e scorej (e) = (e) wi (e) features wi weights for section i Candidate Excerpts Diagnosis Unigrams, bigrams, word position Length, sentence types Title mentions Counts of dates, pronouns Count of similar excerpts 1 2
Features : Ranked Excerpts 3 4 Treatment 1 2 3 4 5 Excerpt Selection: Objective Objective: Minimize total rank of selected excerpts k n min rank ( xi , j ) xi , j i 1 j 1 Excerpt Selection: Exclusivity Objective: Minimize total rank of selected excerpts Constraints: 1. Exclusivity
exactly one excerpt per section n x i, j 1 i 1 k i 1 Treatment Treatment Treatment 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4
4 Excerpt Selection: Redundancy Objective: Minimize total rank of selected excerpts: Constraints: 1. Exclusivity exactly one excerpt per topic 2. Redundancy similarity between each pair of selected excerpts < 0.5 x ij xi ' j ' sim(eij , ei ' j ' ) 1 1 2 i 1 k , j 1 n 0.75 5 0.2 1 2 ILP Optimization ILP has been applied previously in summarization Marciniak & Strube 2005; Clarke & Lapata 2007; McDonald 2007 Traditional approach: Disjoint learning; constraints during inference
Our approach: Joint learning Fold ILP into learning process Perceptron ranking framework Training Iterate over articles in training set: 1. Generate an entire article using current weights 2. Compare the generated article with the training example 3. Adjust weights for incorrect sections as in perceptron Training data Generated data a ...... a b ...... e c ...... ......
f d d w w b e w w c f Implementation Details Iterative training procedure Compute ILP during each step of each iteration Concern: ILP is slow (NP hard) In practice, manageable Generate article: 1-2 sec. Train: 6 hours Evaluation Setup Compare against existing articles Automatic evaluation with ROUGE-1 Similar to DUC evaluation 90% train / 10% test # Articles Avg. article size American Film Actors Diseases 2,150
13.7 sent. 523 16.8 sent. Oracle For each section in original article, select best candidate section Does not follow template; may have more or fewer sections Wikipedia article Candidates 1 2 Oracle article 1 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 3 6
0 Actors Diseases Disjoint Baselines: Search Search First paragraphs of the first search result macular hole Macular Hole - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Macular Hole Facts plus the Latest News on Macular Hole Treatments... A macular hole is just that: a hole in the macula. What causes a http://healthnewsflash.com/conditions/macular_hole.htm - Cached Facts About Macular Hole [NEI Health Information] Publication about macular hole, a small break in the macula, which is located in the center of the eye's retina. ... What causes a macular hole? http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/macularhole - Cached Similar to lead-based summarization techniques Evaluation: Search 0.6 Oracle 0.54 Disjoint Rouge F-Score 0.5 0.4 0.44 0.41
0.37 0.32 0.3 0.2 0.13 0.1 0 Actors Diseases Search alone is not sufficient Full Model Baselines: No Template Search First paragraphs of the first search result No Template Cluster by topic, then use single classifier (vs. per section) macular hole 0.83 0.90 0.72 0.25 0.34 0.86 Similar to biographical summarization techniques Zhou et al., 2004; Biadsy et al., 2008 0.90
0.85 0.95 Evaluation: No Template 0.6 0.54 Rouge F-Score 0.5 0.4 Oracle Full Model Search Disjoint 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.37 0.32 0.28 0.3 0.2 0.13 0.1 0 Actors Diseases
Structure helps performance Baselines: Disjoint Search First paragraphs of the first search result No Template Single classifier with topic clustering Disjoint Separate training for section classifiers Diagnosis Causes Symptoms Treatment 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
3 4 4 4 4 Evaluation: Disjoint Oracle Full Model Search No Template Disjoint 0.6 0.54 Rouge F-Score 0.5 0.4 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.36 0.37 0.35 0.32 0.28 0.3
0.2 0.13 0.1 0 Actors Diseases Joint learning helps performance Analysis of editor reaction: Method Goal: Observe long-term reader response to articles Method: Replace 15 Wikipedia stubs with system outputs Monitor edits to evaluate article quality Revision history of Feltys syndrome 16:33, 15 February 2009 Stevenfruitsmaak m (5,404 bytes) (Complications: c/e) 00:00, 15 January 2009 AnjaManix (5,405 bytes) 14:08, 23 December 2008 220.127.116.11 (5,380 bytes) (cs iw) 02:32, 16 December 2008 Kilbad (5,357 bytes) (Causes: removing space) 02:32, 16 December 2008 Kilbad m (5,358 bytes) (Diagnosis: removing spaces) 01:00, 16 December 2008 Arcadian (5,362 bytes) (ref) 00:58, 16 December 2008 Arcadian (5,252 bytes) (Treatment: refs) Analysis of editor reaction: Results Common edit types: Intra-wiki links Pellagra, a similar condition Grammar following discontinuing Didronel following discontinuation of Didronel Content changes Removed promotional text taken from a drug manufacturers website
Type Count Total Articles 15 Promoted 13 Edit Types Intra-wiki links 41 Grammar 22 Content changes 4 Total Edits 93 Conclusions Structure is important when creating long overview articles Constraints may be enforced during joint learning Automatically generated articles are useful first drafts for editors Amyoplasia Cogan syndrome
Amyoplasia is a generalized lack in the newborn of muscular development and growth, with contracture and deformity at most joints. It is the most common form of arthrogryposis. Cogan syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent It is characterized by quadrimelic involvement and replacement inflammation of the front of the eye (the cornea) and of often fever, muscle by dense fibrous tissue and fat. Studies sketetal fatigue, and weight loss, episodes of dizziness, and hearing loss. It involving Amyoplasia have revealed similar findings of the muscle can lead to deafness or blindness if untreated. The classic form of tissue due to various causes including that seen in sacral agenesis Feltys syndrome the disease was first described by D.G. Cogan in 1945. and diseases of the anterior horn cell. So amyoplasia may not Felty's syndrome a disorder characterized the be combination describe justisone group of patients butbymay an intermediate History
 of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly and neutropenia. common pathway rather than the primary cause of the In 1945 ophthalmologist David Glendenning Cogan (1908-1993) contractures. first described the "nonsyphilitic interstitialDiagnosis keratitis and  for is Felty's syndrome defined the presence of three conditions: 1/3 ofby the cases of arthrogryposis. Sporadic vestibuloauditory symptoms" that would later bear hisAccounts name. In over  rheumatoid arthritis, an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), and an inheritance. 1963, the atypical form of Cogan syndrome was first described. abnormally low white blood count. It affects less than 1% of Diagnosis patients with rheumatoid arthritis. While the ESR, WBC, C-reactive protein test may be abnormal and
List Listof ofarticles: articles: http://people.csail.mit.edu/csauper/wiki.html http://people.csail.mit.edu/csauper/wiki.html Causes The cause of Felty's syndrome is unknown. It is more common in
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