Absolutism - Lower Dauphin School District

Absolutism - Lower Dauphin School District

Absolutism Essential Questions: How did absolute monarchs centralize power in government and thereby control the religion, culture and economics of Europe?

Spanish Absolutism Starts with Charles I A Hapsburg King Also rules the Holy Roman Empire, Netherlands , and

America Conquests by Cortes and Pissaro Spain gains immense power and influence

Philip II of Spain Ruler of Spain during their golden years. Don Quixote is written El Greco

Son of Charles V (remember from the Reformation) Spain becomes the most powerful nation during

his reign (1556-1598) Government tactics Appointed family to Royal jobs Created a new royal

palace (1584) Military Expanded Spanish armada to over 150 ships Battle of Lepanto (1571)

made Spain strongest navy Fought in several wars Vs. Ottomans (muslim) Main Catholic League nation during Reformation

Anglo-Spanish war Spanish Armada defeated British Spanish Inquisition Part of the Catholic

Counter-Reformation Attacks Protestants, Muslims, Jews and Homosexuals About 87,000

cases recorded Continues until 1834 Economy under Philip II Used silver from the Americas

to pay for most of his programs Command Economy Didnt build up industry in country Ex. Sheep or wheat?

Extreme spending Debt of 36 million ducats When silver mining dries up, Inflation and debt set in and

cause a decline in power and wealth France and Absolutism France emerged after Spain as the next great power of absolutism.

Started over religious conflict. Huguenots versus Catholics Henry IV offered the Edict of Nantes Created Religious tolerance towards Huguenots In the process, consolidated his power as king

The main absolutist in France was Louis XIV. King Louis XIV: Sun King King of France from 1661-1715 I am the State

Strengthened royal power immensely Built Versailles to keep the Estates General (Congress) happy so he can get his way.

Versailles Versailles Gardens Versailles Mall

Versailles Gardens Versailles Gardens Versailles Gardens

Hall of Mirrors Louis Chapel Louis XIV

Foreign Policy Fought several wars, including the War of Spanish Succession and others against England and the Netherlands Franco-Ottoman Alliance (against Spain) Had the largest army in Europe at 300,000 soldiers

Religion under Louis XIV Persecuted the Huguenots Repealed the Edict of Nantes in 1685

More than 200,000 fled Why is this a bad move for Louis? Economics under Louis

Mercantilism Export more than a country imports Taxes and tolls Over 100 tolls within France Placed high Tariffs on imported goods

Huge taxes on the middle class Cost of Versailles: 10% of total income to maintain Peter the Great

interested in western European society/education attempt to reform Russia to be more European (westernization) enlightened despot (social & political reforms)

centralized all power (inc. Orthodox church) failed to gain warm water port fueled by Russia's need to gain access to the sea

Emperors waged expansion wars against Ottoman empire wanted trade access route to Pacific was too far (Siberia & away from

Europe) goal was Black Sea finally achieved under Catherine the Great in 1795

Warm Water Port Catherine the Great Empress of Russia enlightened despot

daughter-in-law of Peter the Great spoke against serfdom expanded empire to warm water port efficient & organized

Empress 1762- (Empress) St. Petersburg & Westernization of Russia capital designed as

"window to the West built by serfs & Italian architects Serf: low wage worker The Habsburgs

& the Holy Roman Empire Habsburg Family Crest Austrian Empire: 1657-1718

Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1658-1705)

Schnbrunn Palace Schnbrunn Palace Schnbrunn Palace

Prince Eugne of Savoy: 1718 Holy Roman Empire: 1750 The Hohenzollerns &

Brandenburg-Prussia Prussian Family Crest Prussia & the Austrian Empire: 1721-72

King Frederick I of Prussia (r.17011713) Formerly: Frederick III of

Brandenburg (r. 16881701) Frederick the Great (r. 1740-1786) Frederick the Great (r. 1740-1786)

Frederick the Greats Court Europe in 1740 The War of the

Austrian Succession 1741 - 1748 Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) Maria

Theresa (r. 17401780) Maria Theresa & Her Family Her Notable

Children: HRE Joseph II HRE Leopold II Queen Marie

Antoinette (Fr.) War of the Austrian Succession What are the benefits of Absolutism? Who benefits?

What are the problems with Absolutism? The exception to absolutism Englands Parliament held much power. Queen Elizabeth was able to coerce parliament on many issues

Charles I- acted as a complete absolutist monarch Refused to sign the Petition of Right Jailed civilians Led troops into the House of Commons to arrest A breach to Absolutism

The English Civil War. Cavaliers (supporters of Charles I) Roundheads (led by Oliver Cromwell) Charles I is executed The Commonwealth.

A republic led by Cromwell Puritan laws and power The Glorious Revolution Charles II Constitutional monarchy

English Bill of Rights Habeas Corpus

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