Accelerating Global Interaction From 1945 to Present Globalization Globalization has come to seem inevitable since 1950 Global economic linkages contracted between the two world wars
Capitalist winners of WWII - determined not to repeat the Great Depression Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944 - est. the World Bank and the IMF Technology also helped accelerate economic globalization The 1970s Major capitalist countries dropped many
controls on economic activity; increasingly viewed the world as a single market - this approach was known as neo-liberalism - favored reduction of tariffs, free global movement of capital - neo-liberalism was imposed on many poor countries as a condition for giving them loans - breakdown of communist state-controlled
economies furthered the process Regionalization Global economic transactions quickened dramatically after WWII - World trade skyrocketed ($57 billion in 1947; over $7 trillion in 2001) - Money became highly mobile globally
Foreign direct investment (FDI), especially after 1960 - short-term investment in foreign currencies or stocks - international credit cards, allowing easy transfer of money to other countries Money Becomes Mobile
Transnational Corporations Transnational corporations (TNCs), huge global businesses that operate in many countries simultaneously - some TNCs have greater economic clout than many countries - by 2000, 51 of the worlds 100 largest economic units were TNCs, not countries
Transnational Corporations Growth, Instability, Inequality Greatest economic growth spurt in world history; immense creation of wealth - life expectancies rose nearly everywhere - infant mortality declined
- literacy rates increased - great decline in poverty Wealth Gap Growing inequality between the rich and poor - ratio between the income of the top and bottom 20 percent of worlds population was
3:1 in 1820; 86:1 in 1991 - the great disparity has shaped almost everyones life chances - growing disparities between the developing countries made common action difficult Inequality Economic inequality within individual states
- U.S. lost millions of manufacturing jobs - China, urban income by 2000 was three times that of rural income Movement against globalization emerged in the 1990s - involves people from both rich and poor countries - they argue that free-trade, market-driven corporate globalization degrades the environment, enhances global inequality
- attracted global attention with massive protest at World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle (1999) Inequality of Wealth in the USA An American Empire Opposition to corporate free-trade globalization = opposition to growing U.S.
power and influence in the world - often seen as an American Empire - most Americans deny that America is an empire - perhaps best described as an informal empire like those exercised by Europeans in China and the Middle East in the nineteenth century USA The Last Superpower
Collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war left the United States without any equivalent power in opposition - US was able to act unilaterally against Afghanistan and Iraq after being attacked by Islamic militants on September 11, 2001 - US in a new struggle, to eliminate Islamic terrorism
9-11-01, World Trade Center Attack Problems facing the USA USA - growing economic competition since about 1975 - GDP of US/World: 50% in 1945; 20% in the 1980s
- Reversal of U.S. trade balance - imports now far exceed its exports Armed struggle against U.S. intervention in Vietnam, Cuba, Iraq, etc. Intense dislike of American cultural imperialism - by 2000, widespread opposition to U.S. international policies Problems at Home
The global exercise of American power has also caused controversy within the United States - Vietnam split the country worse than anything since the Civil War - U.S. invasion of Iraq provoked similar protests and controversies
US Trade Deficit Liberation and Feminism Protests of the 1960s suggested a global culture of liberation - USA: civil rights, antiwar protests - China: Cultural Revolution Development of the idea of a third world
Feminism had the most profound potential for change - rethinking of relationships between men and women - began in the West in the nineteenth century (suffrage) Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King Jr. Feminism in the West Feminism revived in the West (1960s) with a new agenda - against historic understanding of women as other or deviant - demanded right of women to control their own bodies
- agenda of equal rights in employment and education womens liberation: broad attack on patriarchy as a system of domination - consciousness raising: becoming aware of oppression - open discussion of issues involving sexuality Black women emphasized solidarity with black men, not separation from them Feminism in the Global South
Women had been welcomed in communist and revolutionary movements but were sidelined after movements success African feminists (1970s) thought Western feminists were too individualistic and too focused on sex - resented Western feminists interest in cultural matters like female circumcision and polygamy
- many African governments and many African men identified feminism with colonialism Case Studies Not all womens movements dealt explicitly with gender - Kenya: womens group movement supported individual women and communities
- Morocco: feminist movement targeted law defining women as minors; women finally obtained legal equality in 2004 - Chile: womens movement helped groups survive economically, exposed human rights abuses - South Korea: women joined a mass popular movement that brought democracy by the late 1980s Feminism
International Feminism The woman question became a global issue in the 20th century - patriarchy lost some of its legitimacy - UN declared 1975 as International Womens Year - and declared 19751985 as the Decade for Women
- UN sponsored a series of World Conferences on Women - by 2006, 183 nations had ratified the UN Convention to Eliminate Discrimination against Women Feminism Sharp divisions within global feminism
- Who has the right to speak on behalf of women? - conflict between developed and developing nations interests - third-world groups often disagreed Global backlash against feminism Modernity and Religion Sharp decline in religious belief and practice in
some places Spread of scientific culture hurts religion Further spread of major world religions, and their attacks on elements of a secular and global modernity Buddhist ideas - well received in the West - Christianity spread even further - majority of Christians are no longer in Europe
and the United States - Islam also spread widely World Religions in 1999 Fundamentalism on a Global Scale Fundamentalism is a major reaction against modernization and globalization
- has developed in every major religious tradition Many features of the modern world appear threatening to established religion - upset class, family, and gender relationships - often caused by foreigners from the West Fundamentalism fundamentalism comes from U.S. religious
conservatives in the early twentieth century; called for a return to the fundamentals of Christianity - US viewed as being on the edge of a moral abyss - in the 1970s, began to enter the political arena as the religious right
Fundamentalism is most prominent in Islam Osama Bin Laden Renewal of Islam with Fundamentalism Penetration of fundamentalist thought in the Islamic world - increase in religious observance
- many women voluntarily adopted modest dress and veils - governments used Islamic rhetoric Attacks on hostile foreign powers - Hamas (Palestine) and Hezbollah (Lebanon) targeted Israel - bin Laden founded al-Qaeda in response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan - 1998, al-Qaeda issued a fatwa (religious edict) declaring war against America The great enemy was irreligious Western-style modernity,
U.S. imperialism, and economic globalization Islamic Renewal in Iran The Global Environment Transformed Factors have magnified the human impact on the earth - world population quadrupled in the
twentieth century - massive use of fossil fuels - enormous economic growth Uneven spread of all three over the world - economic growth came to appear possible and desirable almost everywhere Environment Human environmental disruptions are now of
global proportions - doubling of cropland and corresponding contraction of forests and grasslands - numerous extinctions of plant and animal species - air pollution in many major cities and rivers - chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) thinned the ozone layer By 2000, scientific consensus on the
occurrence of global warming as the result of burning of fossil fuels and loss of trees Global Warming Political Cartoon Green and Global Environmentalism began in the nineteenth century as a response to the Industrial
Revolution but did not draw a mass following - became popular in second half of 20th century - entered German politics as the Green Party Environmentalism took root in developing countries in 1970s1980s - more locally based, involving poorer people - concerned with food security, health, and survival
Green and Global Environmentalism became a matter of global concern by end of twentieth century - legislation to control pollution in many countries - encouragement for businesses to become green - research on alternative energy sources
- conferences on global warming - international agreements on a number of issues City Dump in Managua
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