What is an oxide? An oxide is a Binary compound of oxygen and another element. M & O Oxides can be classified in two ways 1. Nature of Oxides 2. Amount of Oxygen present 1. Types of Oxides based on their nature Most oxides can be grouped into four types: 1. acidic oxides 2. basic oxides 3. amphoteric oxides
4. neutral oxides 1. Acidic oxides Oxides of non-metal Acidic oxides are often gases at room temperature. React with water to produce acids. Example: sulphur trioxide + water sulphuric acid SO3 + H2O H2SO4 React with bases and alkalis to produce salts
Example: carbon dioxide + sodium hydroxide carbonate + water CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O React with basic oxides to produce salts SiO2 + MgO MgSiO3 sodium
Examples of acidic oxides Acidic Oxide Formula Acid Produced with Water sulphur trioxide SO3 sulphuric acid, H2SO4 sulphur dioxide
Basic oxides Oxides of metal Basic oxides are often solids at room temperature. Most basic oxides are insoluble in water. Calcium oxide (quicklime) Basic oxides React with acids to produce salts and water only. Example:
Magnesium oxide + hydrochloric acid MgO + 2HCl magnesium chloride + water MgCl2 + H2O This is a neutralisation reaction Examples of basic oxides Basic Oxide Formula
Oxides of metal Can behave as acidic oxides or as basic oxides Zinc oxide Amphoteric oxides React with acids and alkalis to produce salts Example: aluminium oxide (Al2O3)
aluminium oxide as a base aluminium oxide + hydrochloric acid aluminium + chloride water
sodium + aluminate water aluminium oxide as an acid aluminium sodium + hydroxide oxide Neutral oxides Non-metals that form oxides that show neither
basic nor acidic properties. Insoluble in water. Classification based on amount of Oxygen 1. Normal Oxide i. These contain enough oxygen to satisfy the valence of the metal. ii. The oxide ion is O2iii. There is only M - O bond iv. These can be of different types as per the valence of the metal a) Monoxide NaO, MgO b) Dioxide CO2, c) Trioxide
Lecture 1 A Simple Representative Model: Two Period Kornkarun Cheewatrakoolpong, Ph.D. Macroeconomics Ph.D. Program in Economics Chulalongkorn University, 1/2008 Reading List Manuelli's notes chapter 1 Romer chapter 1 Kuhn-Tucker Consider the following maximization problem: Max f(x) s.t.
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