Acids & Bases - PC\|MAC

Acids & Bases - PC\|MAC

Acids & Bases Section 19.1-19.2 Notes Properties of Acids Taste sour (eg: citric acids, acetic acid) React with metals Causes blue litmus to turn pink Aqueous solutions conduct electricity Properties of Bases

Taste bitter Feel slippery (eg: soap) Causes pink litmus to turn blue Aqueous solutions conduct electricity Ions in solution

All water solutions contain H+ & OH Acidic solution contains more H+ Basic solution contains more OH Neutral solution contains equal H+ & OH- Water undergoes selfionization H2O(l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) H3O+ and H+ used interchangeable to represent a hydrogen ion Pure water is neutral b/c H+ = OH- Arrhenius Acids & Bases

Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius (1887) first proposed how acids & bases form Arrhenius model Acids produce H+ in aq. soln. HCl(g) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Bases produce OH- in aq. soln. NaOH(s) Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) Shortcoming: does not explain all bases (eg: NH3 = base)

Brnsted-Lowry Model Danish chemist Johannes Brnsted & English chemist Thomas Lowry proposed more inclusive model Brnsted-Lowry model Acid H+ donor Base H+ acceptor Every Brnsted-Lowry interaction involves conjugate acid-base pairs Conjugate acid species produced when a base accepts H+ from an acid

Conjugate base species produced when an acid donates H+ to a base HX + H2O H3O+ + Xacid conjugate base conjugate acid base

You try Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs in each of the following reactions. NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) HBr(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + Br-(aq) Amphoteric substance that can act as both an acid and a base CO32-(aq) + H2O(l) HCO3-(aq) + OH-(aq) HSO4-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + SO42(aq) Monoprotic and Polyprotic

Acids Monoprotic contains 1 ionizable hydrogen atom (HCl) Diprotic contains 2 ionizable hydrogen atoms (H2SO4) Triprotic contains 3 ionizable hydrogen atoms (H3PO4) Steps for ionization of a polyprotic acid: H3PO4 H2Se

H2SO3 Strength of Acids Strong acids ionize completely in water (good conductors) HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl Rxn goes to completion Denoted by single arrow Weak acids ionize only partially in water (p. 602) HC2H3O2 + H2O H3O+ + C2H3O2 Reversible rxn (double arrow)

Equilibrium established Strength of Bases Strong base dissociates entirely into metal ions & hydroxide ions NaOH Na+ + OH Weak base ionizes only partially to form conjugate acid & hydroxide ion CH3NH2 + H2O CH3NH3+ + OH-

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