Adapting to the underwater world

Adapting to the underwater world

BSAC Incident Report 2018 Jim Watson Incidents Advisor Copyright BSAC 2019 Outline Clare Peddie Incidents Advisor A review of the statistics Some comments on the issues involved Analysis of efficacy of rescue techniques Conclusions on 2018 Copyright BSAC 2019 2018 overview Currently the Incident year runs from Oct 1st to Sept 30th 250 incidents entered into the database 214 UK - sports diving, all affiliations 36 Overseas - involving BSAC members Copyright BSAC 2019 UK Incidents by year Copyright BSAC 2019 Incident types Copyright BSAC 2019 Ascent related incidents 44 ascent related incidents reported (certainly a lot more)

18 13 Rapid ascent Non-rapid ascent but missed stops Causal factors for rapid ascents where factors are known 82% Panic 73% Poor buoyancy control 36% Weights or weighting issues 36% Other equipment problems 27% Out of gas 27% Delayed SMB problems 9% Drysuit controls problems 9% Free flowing regulators Copyright BSAC 2019 Decompression Illness 56 cases recorded in 2018 Data analysis indicates:45% involve depths greater than 30m 41% within tables/computer limits 41% involve repeat diving 11% involve rapid ascents 7% involve missed decompression stops Copyright BSAC 2019 Monthly distribution of incidents Copyright BSAC 2019 Coastguard assistance Copyright BSAC 2019 Helicopter involvement Copyright BSAC 2019

RNLI assistance Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Sadly we report 19 UK fatalities (10 year average = 13.2) 6 BSAC members (10 year average = 6.1) 13 non-BSAC members (10 year average = 7.1) Copyright BSAC 2019 Monthly distribution of incidents Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities by month Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors BSAC Non-BSAC Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info X X BSAC X

X X X X X X X X Non-BSAC X X X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical X X X BSAC

X X X ? X ? X X X X ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO

X X ? X BSAC X X X ? ? X ? ? X X X X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ? X

X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas X X ? X BSAC X X X ? ? X ? ? X X X X X

? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ? X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water X X ? X X X

BSAC X X X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ? X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Immersion Pulmonary Oedema Growing awareness of this potential serious problem Pay attention for the following when diving

5 UK fatalities where IPO is suspected 7 other UK non-fatal incidents where IPO is suspected 1 overseas member fatality where IPO is suspected 2 overseas near-fatal incidents where IPO is confirmed Breathing difficulties without apparent reason Rapid, uneven, heavy breathing Coughing uncontrollably Confusion Belief that regulator is malfunctioning Out of gas indicated but regulator clearly working Refusing or rejecting alternate source Difficulty breathing when on surface If apparent abort the dive Return to surface as quickly as safely possible Seek medical advice Copyright BSAC 2019 Immersion Pulmonary Oedema Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water Separation Trio or more Solo

X X ? X X X X BSAC X X X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X X ? ? X

Non-BSAC X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ? ? X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X IPO Identifying factors require a witness Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water Separation Trio or more Solo Rapid ascent Equipment Heavy/sank X X ? X X X X

BSAC X X X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ? ? X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water Separation Trio or more Solo Rapid ascent Equipment Heavy/sank Rebreather X X ? X X X

X BSAC X X X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ?

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water Separation Trio or more Solo

Rapid ascent Equipment Heavy/sank Rebreather Trimix > 50m X X ? X X X X BSAC X X X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X

X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ? X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X Copyright BSAC 2019 Fatalities Related factors Insufficient info Medical IPO Out of gas Unconscious - water Separation Trio or more Solo Rapid ascent Equipment Heavy/sank Rebreather Trimix > 50m Age X X ? X X X X BSAC X X

X X ? ? X X ? ? X X X X X X X ? ? X Non-BSAC X X X X ? ? X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Average age being 55.8 and includes 3 divers in their 70s Copyright BSAC 2019 Efficacy of Rescue techniques Technique Reported Use Successful Outcome Success Rate Alternate Source1

125 107 85% Controlled Buoyant lift1 81 63 78% CPR1 82 13 16% Oxygen-enriched CPR1 22 4 18% AED use2 20 6 30% 1 analysis from data from 2013-2018 inclusive

2 data extracted from the entire database successful outcome defined as : AS - casualty reaching surface without having to use free ascent CBL - casualty reaching surface Resuscitation techniques - casualty regaining Copyright BSAC 2019 consciousness Conclusions Number of incident reports levelling out over last 5 years Reflecting amount of diving taking place? Reflecting membership numbers? Regretfully fatalities higher than previous years Medical issues again feature strongly in the fatalities Often too early to draw conclusions as outcome of inquests not available IPO is a critical concern that all divers should be aware of Copyright BSAC 2019

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