Adolescent Self-Disclosure as a Protective Factor Against ...

Adolescent Self-Disclosure as a Protective Factor Against ...

Adolescent Self-Disclosure as a Protective Factor Against Subsequent Risky Sexual Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study Amanda L. Hare & Joseph P. Allen Introduction Why do adults worry about teen sex? Teen pregnancy (Lanctot & Smith, 2001) Sexually transmitted infections (Sandfort, Orr, Hirsch, & Santelli, 2008)

Delinquency (Armour & Haynie, 2007) So many, so soon! (Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 2006) Introduction When and where does adolescent sexual activity take place? (Cohen et al., 2002) In their parents homes On the weekdays, after school Introduction

Parental monitoring Associated with less Delinquency & antisocial behavior (Crouter, McDermod, McHale, & Perry-Jenkins, 1990) Illegal substance use (Flannery, Vazsonyi, Torquati, & Fridrich, 1994) Tobacco use (Biglan, Duncan, Ary, & Smolkowski, 1995) Poor school performance (Crouter et al., 1990) Deviant friends (Dishion, Capaldi, Spracklen, & Li, 1995)

Risky sexual activity (Miller, Forehand, & Kotchick, 1999) Introduction Parental knowledge (Kerr & Stattin, 2000) Child disclosure Parental solicitation Parental control Introduction Parental knowledge (Kerr & Stattin, 2000) Child disclosure Parental solicitation

Parental control Child disclosure protects against (Kerr & Stattin, 2000) Delinquency School problems Deviant friends But what about risky sexual activity? Method Participants

121 adolescents (58 males, 63 females) Racially & socioeconomically diverse Mean age = 13.3 years at Time 1 Measures Adolescent Disclosure Observation of Supportive Behavior Task (Allen, Hall, Insabella, Land, Marsh & Porter, 2001) Measures Parental Control

Mother report on Childhood Report of Parenting Behavior (Schaefer, 1965) Measures Adolescent Delinquency Peer report on Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991) Measures Risky Sexual Behaviors

Adolescent self-report of Age of sexual debut Total number of sexual partners Condoms use Hypothesis 1 Greater adolescent disclosure will have little to no association with subsequent delinquency and risky sexual behaviors. Results Peer report of adolescent

delinquency at age 14 Adolescent reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Mothers report of firm control at age 13 Adolescent reported condom use at age 18 Adolescent reported # of sex partners at

age 18 Results Peer report of adolescent delinquency at age 14 Adolescent reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Mothers report of firm control at age 13 Adolescent reported condom

use at age 18 Adolescent reported # of sex partners at age 18 Hypothesis 2 Greater parental control will be negatively associated with subsequent delinquency and risky sexual behaviors. Results Results = -.16*

Results Self reported age of sexual debut (age 18) 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0.5

1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4 Results

Self reported age of sexual debut (age 18) 20 19 18 17 = .17* 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4

Results Self reported # of sex partners (age 18) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5

2 2.5 3 Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4 Results Self reported # of sex partners (age 18) 20 18 16

14 12 10 8 6 4 = -.30* 2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5

2 2.5 3 Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4 Results Self reported condom use (age 18) 7 6

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

3 Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4 Results Self reported condom use (age 18) 7 6 = .30** 5 4

3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Observed adolescent disclosure to mom (age 13) 3.5 4 Summary Thus Far Consistent with previous literature (Kerr & Stattin, 2000), parental control alone may not be effective in preventing subsequent delinquency and risky sexual behaviors Adolescent disclosure is predictive of fewer subsequent delinquent and risky sexual

behaviors But why? Hypothesis 3 The link between adolescent disclosure and subsequent problem behaviors is mediated by adolescent autonomy. Measures Adolescent Autonomy from Peers

Observation of Autonomy & Relatedness Coding System (Allen, Hauser, Bell, McElhaney, & Tate, 1998) Observed adolescent autonomy from peer at age 16 =? =? Observed adolescent disclosure to mom at age 13

=.17* (direct) =? Adolescent reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Note. Mediating role of teen autonomy from mom at age 16. Age, gender, and income included as covariates in all models. Observed adolescent autonomy from peer at age 16 =.21* Observed

adolescent disclosure to mom at age 13 =.17* (direct) Adolescent reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Note. Mediating role of teen autonomy from mom at age 16. Age, gender and income included as covariates in all models. Observed adolescent autonomy from peer at age 16

=.22* =.21* Observed adolescent disclosure to mom at age 13 =.17* (direct) Adolescent reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Note. Mediating role of teen autonomy from mom at age 16. Age, gender and income included as covariates in all models.

Observed adolescent autonomy from peer at age 16 =.22* =.21* Observed adolescent disclosure to mom at age 13 =.17* (direct) =.13 (after mediation)after mediation)) Adolescent

reported age of sexual debut at age 18 Note. Mediating role of teen autonomy from mom at age 16. Age, gender and income included as covariates in all models. Discussion Autonomy from peers may mediate the link between adolescent disclosure and subsequent problem behaviors These findings are consistent with previous literature underscoring the importance of a quality

parent-child communication in preventing risky sexual behaviors (Wilson & Donenberg, 2004) Future research should investigate avenues through which parents can help their children to feel comfortable sharing personal information Acknowledgments Id like to thank my collaborators: Joseph P. Allen Kathleen McElhaney Nell Manning Emily Marston Erin Miga Dave Szwedo

Joanna Chango Megan Schad Jennifer Heliste Meredyth Evans Katy Higgins Amanda LeTard I would also like to thank the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development for funding awarded to Joseph P. Allen, Principal Investigator, (Grant # 9R01HD058305-11A1) to conduct and write-up this project. Copies of related papers are available at:

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