ADVANCED LINUX SECURITY Abstract : Using mandatory access control greatly increases the security of an operating system. SELinux, which is an implementation of Linux Security Modules (LSM), implements several measures to prevent unauthorized system usage. The security architecture used is named Flask, and provides a clean separation of security policy
and enforcement. This presentation is an overview of the Flask architecture and the implementation in Linux. INTRODUCTION Security is a very broad concept The standard Unix way of providing authentication and authorization Nowadays SELinux is a security module for the Linux Security Modules framework
PROBLEM STATEMENT Real security cannot be provided in user-space only. Malicious code, that manages to bypass the application level security, will usually be executed with the same permissions the current user has Malicious or careless users might also leak sensitive data unless the rules for handling such data are not enforced by the system
Sandboxes and signatures One attempt to minimize the effects of malicious code is running code in a so called sandbox. Another way of trying to secure programs is to use code signing and allowing applications from trusted sources only. Data links Data transmission between systems also needs to
SELINUX SELinux started as a security research project at NSA, together with Secure Computing Corporation and the University of Utah, to demonstrate the benefits of mandatory access control over the user/group schema Today SELinux is included in the mainstream Linux kernel as a security module in the LSM framework.
Basic architecture NSA tried to get their SELinux patches included in the 2.5 development branch kernel back in 2001, but Linus Torvalds rejected the proposal since there were other similar ongoing projects at the same time. Linux security modules To support various security
models, an interface Linux Security Module Interface" was proposed  by Crispin Cowan. Flask architecture and concepts The very flexible MAC architecture used in SELinux is Flask which was derived from a micro-kernel based op-erating system named Fluke All subjects (processes) and objects (files, sockets, . . . ) have a set of security attributes, referred to as the security context of the object.
Instead of working with the security context all the time, the security server maintains a mapping between security at-tribute sets and security identifiers (SIDs). Polyinstantiation is used when a certain resource needs to be shared by many clients. The security server exists to provide policy decisions, map security Type Enforcement The SELinux Type Enforcement (TE) model differs slightly from
traditional models; by using the security class information provided by the Flask architecture and using a single type attribute for both processes and objects. Process transition rules are based on the current process domain, while types created through object transition rules are based on the creating process domain2 (the security type of the process identifier), the object security class and the type of the related object (e.g. parent directory for files). A process cannot change its domain during
Role-Based Access Control Role-based access control (RBAC) is used to define a set of roles that can be assigned to users. SELinux further extends the RBAC model to restrict roles to specified TE domains, and roles can be arranged in a priority hierarchy. The security context of a process contains a role attribute and also, while they are not actually applied, to objects.
MLS While type enforcement is the most important provider of mandatory access control, there might sometimes be a need for traditional multilevel security (MLS). Subjects and objects can have a range of security levels (e.g. directories might contain files with different security levels and some trusted processes" might need to downgrade information) defined when needed, but usually only one level is used.
User Identity The Unix way of representing user identities using UIDs and GIDs is insufficient for SELinux, since changing a user role (e.g. su) involves changing the UID, which means that the actions following are actually performed as the other user and not just as the same user in another role. Only a limited number of programs, like login, sshd and cron, need the ability to change the User Identity
SELinux LSM Module SELinux uses the LSM framework to accomplish its mission. The framework adds security fields to kernel data structures and calls to hook functions in critical points (kernel calls), to manage the security fields and perform access control. Internal Architecture The SELinux module has six major components; the security server, the access vector cache, the network interface table, the
netlink event notification code What is new? SELinux Loadable policy modules The Reference Policy  aims to be a baseline security policy, on which custom policies are easy to build. Policy Management Interface Enhanced Audit Support: Enhanced Multi Level Security Support
Securing the desktop Troubleshooting and reporting has been improved RELATED WORK TrustedBSD LIDS Trusted Solaris GRSecurity
CONCLUSION SELinux provides a much more fine-grained control over the security of a Linux system compared to the Unix" standard Some people claim that the security framework provided by LSM is not extensive enough several critical security hooks are missing and that SELinux security relies on the kernel being bug free. Complete system security is an utopia, but SELinux is one step in that direction.
Installing or activating SELinux is pretty straight-forward, and no enforcement is being done until the user has checked the logfiles for possible problems and decides that the configuration is good enough.
Syringe Exchange Legalized. On July 11, 2016 North Carolina enacted G.S. 90-113.27 legalizing syringe exchange programs (also called needle exchange). Under . G.S. 90-113.27, no employee, volunteer or . participant. of a syringe exchange can be charged or prosecuted for...
We wish to thank Captain David Morgan and David Bell for their assistance aboard R/V Questuary. Special thanks to Ulrika Lidstrom for field collections and cell counts, Al Marchi for water nutrient analyses and Chris Ikeda for assistance with experiments....
Excel 2010 Training. ... The basic process for entering data into a cell is to select a cell, and start typing data into it. ... This is normally desirable behavior, especially when you're dealing with small strings of text, like...
Ohm's Law Experiments show that for many materials, including most metals, the resistance remains constant over a wide range of applied voltages or currents This statement has become known as Ohm's Law V = I R Ohm's Law is an...
4) Note the rotating stage Most mineral grains change color as the stage is rotated; these grains go black 4 times in 360° rotation-exactly every 90o Glass and a few minerals stay black in all orientations These minerals are anisotropic...
TC positive repeat following an EC positive routine sample. ... DHEC will consult with the water system. DHEC and water system will mutually determine schedule. Water system will follow the established timetable. Notify DHEC when each action is completed.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!