Aesthetics Journal What is art? Take a look at the images projected on the screen. Which images fit into your definition of art? Which do not? Explain your responses. Aesthetics Defined The branch of philosophy concerned with beauty, especially as it appears in works of art,
and with the judgments we make about the artistic value of such works. Journal 1: What is art? Take a look at the images that follow. Which images fit into your definition of art? Which do not? Explain. Image 1 Image 2
Image 3 Image 4 Journal 2: Art as Reality In what sense should art be an imitation of reality? MIMETIC
vs. ANTI MIMETIC Works Cited Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. c. 150319. Oil on Populus. Muse du Louvre, Paris. Duchamp, Marcel. Fountain. 1917. Sculpture. SFMOMA. https://www.sfmoma.org/artwork/85.383.A-PPPP Monet, Claude. Bridge of Pond of Water Lilies. 1899. Oil on Canvas. The
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Beauty and Truth Platos Form of Beauty manifested in all beautiful things Beauty is the truth of beautiful things Transcendent Form of Beauty makes all things beautiful Therefore, beauty is objective. Beauty = Truth; Truth = Beauty
Learning from Beauty? Recognize the single science of beauty everywhere Achieve boundless love of wisdom Appreciate and contemplate all beauty Appreciate the beauty of the sciences Appreciate the beauty of institutions and laws over individual beauty Appreciate the beauty of the mind over the outward form
Appreciate beauty in all forms Appreciate beauty of one form Truth Beauty Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus (c. 1486). Tempera on canvas. Uffizi, Florence
Limousin, Leonard. Crucifixion. (c1505-c1577) Enamel. Photo by Universal History Archive/Getty Images)
Michelangelo. Pieta. (14981499). Marble. St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City Aristotle Emphasized form What formal elements define successful works of art? Focused on tragedy an imitation of an action that is complete in itself  that which has a beginning, middle, and end Valued catharsis the release of emotions that occurs when we
empathize with a character of tragedy and, by extension, diminish the power of the released emotions over us. (Contrast with Plato) Believed, like Plato, that beauty was objective Subjectivity of Art David Hume appreciating art is wholly subjective dependent upon the individuals judgment of value Judging a work of art a good or great,
however, requires consensus from those most experienced with art and aesthetics Objectivity of Art Kant a priori knowledge about beauty inherent structures exist in the mind that allow people to appreciate beauty. Intellectual not emotional response to art leads to appreciation One must be objective (disinterested) in order to appreciate art; subjective emotional responses are in their very nature not
aesthetic responses. Sharing a beautiful experience is essential to art. Emotions, Ethics, and Art Confucius Music appreciation leads to virtue (compare to Plato and Pythagorus) Harmony in music mirrors harmony in life. Sappho what is beautiful is good and what is good will soon also be beautiful Music, visual arts, and dance are found almost universally
across cultures Emotions, Ethics, and Art (cont.) Friedrich Schiller art is inspiration for become good citizens (Plato again?) Beauty symbolizes morality
Unites the individual with the rest of the world Arthur Schopenhauer Perception of art must be disinterested (Kant)
Art offers an escape from the unsatisfying world and from our irrational desires Art allows us to get outside ourselves, frees us from our own desires, and allows us to be more sympathetic with others. Nietzsche, Ethics, and Art Aesthetic is Ethics Beauty should guide our actions
Distinguishes between two sources of art Apollonian depicts the world as orderly and harmonious; creates an ethics of rationality and clarity (Socrates) Dionysian depicts the vibrant frenzy of life; amoral (without ethics) but helps the individual transcend him or herself Great art is both Closing Questions Is there a difference in quality between current popular music and socalled classical music? Is there any plausible argument that one ought to
prefer to the other? In what sense do we believe in objects of fiction? Does it make sense to say that a work of art (say a novel) in total fiction, that is, that nothing in it is true? Do you believe that art and aesthetic appreciation can make one a
better person? How? Why does listening to music move us?
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