Age of Ideologies I -

Age of Ideologies I -

Age of Ideologies I WWII: Pius XII, Dietrich Bonhffer, Corrie Ten Boom Post WWI Christianity 1914 World War I started 1918 World War I ended, leaving a much changed Europe Post WWI Europe suffered a massive dechristianization The Roman Catholics responded with increased ties to the state, and various social programs, to some good effect The protestant churches were a bit more

shaken, and due to weaker ties with the state less able to respond Post WWI Christianity Especially in Central Europe, Germany was the worst destroyed by WWI and had previously been the center for the majority of European missions work Britain was also discouraged and subjected to great losses in WWI In both churches the rise in intellectualism marked a moving away of scholars from Christianity

WWII Roman Catholicism 1933 Hitler and the Nazi party took majority control in the government The RCC had long been seeking a concordat (legitimizing agreement) with Germany in order to maintain influence Shortly after Hitlers rise to power a concordat was signed laying out various benefits and concessions on both parts The most important were, freedom of religion, clerics not involved in political parties, and no state interference in RCC organizations

WWII Roman Catholicism The Reichskonkordat was negotiated by Cardinal Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli who was shortly to become pope Pius XII The concordat gave legitimacy to the Nazi party allowing an even greater control of the government to fall to them Some use the above as an excuse to blame Hitler and WWII on the RCC The problems in the concordat were understood, but seen as unavoidable WWII Roman Catholicism

Pius XI published Mit Brennender Sorge With Burning Concern decrying Germanys abuse of the Reichskonkordat Cardinal Pacelli became Pope Pius XII on his 63rd birthday, March 2, 1939 Despite his having formerly worked with them, the Nazi's complained about Pius XII When the war began he tried to maintain the traditional neutrality of the RCC He did speak out somewhat against the Nazis and anti-semitism, but never directly called for action against them

WWII Roman Catholicism The RCCs record during WWII is rather hit and miss, sometimes doing great deeds, other time neglecting great needs The pope never would take an open stand against the Nazis but did try to obtain passports and aid some Jewish emigration After WWII the Pius XII and the RCCs role in the war was greatly criticized Pius was accused of being Hitlers puppet, criticized for his lack of involvement, and his acceptance of the Ustases war crimes WWII Roman Catholicism

Pius XII had other influences on the RCC He exercised papal infallibility in declaring the doctrine of the assumption of Mary Called the Great Consistory and ended the 400 year long majority of Italian Cardinals Published an Encyclical titled Humani Generis, explaining the RCC v. Evolution Died in 1958 under the administrations of a quack, who also botched his embalming 1999 the RCC appointed the ICJHC to investigate the conduct in WWII, they were inconclusive WWII Protestantism

Protestantism being inherently more divided than Catholicism, they suffered greater losses during the inter-war period When the Nazis took power they also tried to take control of the church, they formed the National Reich Church by conglomerating the protestants together The Nazis attempted to make a puppet church that was merely another platform for popular indoctrination WWII Protestantism Through a process called positive Christianity they tried to emphasize the

Aryan Jesus and deemphasize his Jewishness While most churches went along with it, generally loving nation above God, the Confessing Church went underground Dietrich Bonhffer Born 1906 in Breslau Germany, the 6th of 8 children in an upper middle class family Wanted to be a minister from an early age Got his doctorate in theology from the University of Berlin, then studied at Union Theological in New York While in New York he came to enjoy the

African-American Spiritual Returned to Germany in 1931, pastored for a time, and was resistant to the Nazis Dietrich Bonhffer 1931 Along with Martin Niemller and Karl Barth he set up the Bekennende Kirche or Confessing Church Taught in various underground seminaries training German pastors Emphasized that Nazi ideology must be resisted and the Jews must be helped Before the war he went to the U.S.A. so that

he wouldnt have to fight, but realized his place was in Germany with his people 1939 he joined a group of conspirators who were trying to assassinate Hitler 1943 money used to help Jews escape was traced to him and he was imprisoned In 1944 the failed July 20 Plot revealed Bonhffers connections to the conspiracy He was moved through various prison/concentration camps 1945 in Flossenbrg he was executed by hanging, his brother and two brothers in law were also executed for their part in the

conspiracy to assasinate Hitler His major literary contribution to today is his book The Cost of Discipleship Corrie Ten Boom Born April 15, 1892 in Amsterdam Grew up in a strong Christian home, greatly influenced by her father Became the fist licensed woman watchmaker in the Netherlands During WWII her family actively hid many Jews helping them to escape Her entire family was arrested, her father died, and she and her sister were sent to

Ravensbrck concentration camp Corrie Ten Boom Her sister died very shortly before Corrie was released Corrie began an international ministry speaking and teaching about Christ A movie The Hiding Place was based on her autobiography She died on her 91st birthday in 1983 You can listen to her at ownloads/viewcat.php?cid=14

Hitlers Christianity Some try and claim that Hitler was a Christian, many Christians claim Hitler was an atheist He was probably primarily atheistic and Christian in formality also because it gave him influence, obviously, he was not actually a Christian In any case Hitler was a rather notorious liar Age of Ideologies II Communism: Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and Brother

Andrew, Karl Heinrich Marx Born 1818 in Trier, Germany to a wealthy German-Jewish family His father born into a line of rabbis name was Herschel Mordecai but he changed it to Heinrich Marx for business sake Began studying at the University of Bonn, where he joined the Trier Tavern club His father wanted him to be serious about education so sent him to the Friedrich Willhelms Universitt in Berlin Obtained a doctorate in 1841

Karl Heinrich Marx 1842 began a career in Journalism 1843 his paper was shut down Met Engels in Paris and they had warm happy communist feelings together Marx began to develop the philosophy of historical materialism 1848 Marx and Engels first published a copy of The Communist Manifesto as a

statement of faith for their small Communist League Karl Heinrich Marx Marx/Engels were kicked out of Paris and moved to Brussels in Belgium They were kicked out of Belgium and moved to Kln (Cologne) Germany 1849 Marx moves to Cologne and starts a leftist paper May 1849 Marx is kicked out of Germany and moves to London where he remains for the rest of his life Gets married to Jenny von Westphalen

and has 7 children (3 survived) Karl Heinrich Marx Marx lived in London writing books and political commentaries like Das Kapital Emphasized revolutionary activist politics Was an atheist and saw religion as a thing to be pitied, and useful only as a drug Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the

demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo. Marx died 2 years after his wife in 1883 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Lenin Born 1870 in Simbirsk, Russia During his childhood his brother was hanged for attempting to assassinate Tsar Alexander III this cemented Lenin to Marxist extremism

Was well learned in Latin and Greek, but was kicked out of university for participating in protest After independent study he obtained a license to practice law in 1891 Continued revolutionary activity and was exiled to Siberia from 1895-1900 Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Lenin Wrote reactionary material and led the Bolshevik party in the split up of the primary leftist party. During WWI he led an anti-patriotic faction hoping for the overthrow of Russia to

provide the chaos needed for revolution Ultimately with the slogan of All power to the Soviets Lenin led a successful revolution in 1917 Became leader of Russia and made an unloved treaty with Germany to end WWI Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Lenin Lenins major contribution to Communism was his professionalizing of the party Began a secret police service the Cheka Lenin initiated the Red Terror stomping

out imprisoning and executing all counter-revolutionary elements He consolidated and led the government promoting a new economic policy to help care for the war ravaged Russia he was now ruling Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - Lenin Tried to prevent greater Anti-Semitism 1922 suffered a stroke and was partially debilitated Began to doubt the other leaders of the party, especially Stalin, whom he had personally trained and elevated

Died Jan. 21 1924 not wishing to have any special memorial or services He received the exact opposite in the formation of the cult of Lenin which included the renaming of St. Petersburg into Leningrad in his honor Joseph Stalin Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin Born in 1898 into the Georgian (Jughashvili) family Grew up abused as a child, which some

say hardened him for the rest of his life At 14 he attended the Tiflis Theological seminary, living off of a scholarship and a small stipend for singing in the choir Became an active Marxist and his activities earned him Siberian exile to 1917 Joseph Stalin Had a bad home life, his first wife died, their son committed suicide. His second wife committed suicide, their son died an alcoholic, and their daughter emigrated to the U.S. Stalin rose to power, using manipulation

and great political cunning He started the cult of Lenin and attached himself as Lenins most devoted follower Used a ban on party factionalism to exile and ban all of his detractors from the party Joseph Stalin Ruthlessly encouraged industrial growth and collectivized the peasants into communes triggering a famine that killed 5-10 million.

Blamed failures on rich peasants (kulaks) who were then sent to Gulag prison camps Stalin harshly repressed religion wanting worship only for Lenin and thus himself the number of churches went from 54,000 in 1917 to a few hundred in the mid 20th century. The Orthodox church was re-allowed during WWII as a patriotic and nationalistic organization, though it split from mainstream Orthodoxy in following Stalin Joseph Stalin Performed a great purge removing bad influences from the party and reemphasizing the Lenin-Stalin cult

Initiated mass deportations of ethnic groups out of mainland Russia Severely persecuted the Jews as American spies and traitors A low estimate of 20 million people died during his reign Died in 1953 of a stroke or poisoning Brother Andrew Anne van der Bijl was born in 1928 to a poor family in Holland Grew up in a good Christian home, but didnt personally have faith 1939 his brother died of Tuberculosis and

Andrew blamed God for it 1940 Germans occupied Holland and Andrew raised small mischief against them After the war he became a soldier and was injured, while convalescing he began to read the Bible Brother Andrew Prayed Lord, if you will show me the way I will follow you. Wanted to become a missionary but was daunted by the 12 years training required 1953 attended the Glasgow missionary

school in Scotland for training because they had a much quicker program He learned much from a month long no money, dont ask for any mission trip During this time Andrew witnessed many miracles and a faith which would mark the rest of his life grew Brother Andrew Had an opportunity to attend a socialist youth festival in Warsaw and there saw the hopelessness of the communists He felt his calling in Rev. 3:2 Now wake up! Strengthen what little remains, for

even what is left is at the point of death At Gods prompting someone taught Andrew to drive, then later two others gave him a brand new VW bug and money Andrew loaded his car with bibles and smuggled them into Yugoslavia relying on God to give him a place to deliver them Brother Andrew 1958 Andrew married the love of his life Corrie Van Dam Developed a famous border crossing prayer when openly smuggling bibles in Father, You have made blind eyes to see -- now

I ask you to make seeing eyes blind." Continued smuggling bibles by dozens, hundreds, and thousands into various Communist countries 1961 project pearl delivered 1 million bibles to China in one night Brother Andrew Wrote his autobiography Gods Smuggler which led others to join him in his work Founded the Open Doors ministry which focuses on bringing bibles to those who dont have them

Now Open Doors works primarily in the Muslim countries Corrie Ten Boom also ministered to the communists with her pepperbox messages and speaking tours Age of Ideologies III Fundamentalism, Ecumenism, Mass Evangelism, and Mega Churches R. A. Torrey Born 1856 in Hoboken New Jersey into a fairly well off family

Grew up in a Christian home w/ Christian customs, but he didnt become a Christian Went to Yale at 15 and became enthralled with all of the worldly joys that were available Through the prayers of his mother he was saved Met D.L. Moody and was encouraged to evangelize Got married then moved to Germany to study at the universities of Leipzig & Erlangen which taught higher criticism R. A. Torrey Upon returning to the States, he began to pastor

a tiny church in Minneapolis, the Open Door Church 1888 began working among the poor, at which point he dedicated himself to praying through Torrey was a man of intense and fervent prayer and all his churches were marked by constant prayer meetings 1889 took over the Chicago Evangelization Society (now Moody Bible Institute) He began teaching with great effect, using his education to expound the scriptures R. A. Torrey

1894 began pastoring Chicago Avenue Church (now Moody Memorial Church) soon the 2,200 member auditorium was packed, he blamed it on prayer 1898 started a weekly prayer meeting to pray for worldwide revival, averaging about 300 people Torrey felt a burden to pray for the opportunity to preach worldwide, within a week he was asked to preach an evangelistic series in Australia Torreys leave of absence became permanent as he traveled the world preaching for many years seeing huge revivals across the globe R. A. Torrey

1912 he began serving as the dean of BIOLA He became chief editor of a set of books called The Fundamentals a large collection of articles refuting liberal theology 1924-1928 moved to North Carolina and traveled around teaching bible conferences, then he died He wrote over 40 different books and everyone should read The Power of Prayer He is one of my heroes yay Torrey Christian Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism is a label used for Christians that has become abused in modern times. As a movement it is hard to define due to the multiple groups that all have gone under the name Fundamentalist Originally fundamentalism arose as a reaction to the growth of liberal theology in the Church The name came from the 12 volume collection of essays The Fundamentals which attempted to define basic theology, and oppose higher criticism Christian Fundamentalism

Later in the mid 1900s Fundamentalism became synonymous with political actions and the moralizing of society as exemplified by the temperance movement Became demonized in the 1950s on account of the Scopes trials Creationism v. Darwin dispute Now it covers an extremely wide gamut from basic evangelicals who believe the bible is inspired to those who believe that the world is ending tomorrow and the homosexuals are to blame Scopes Trial

Tennessee had outlawed the teaching of Evolution ACLU had offered to defend anybody violating the law, and John Scopes volunteered The case became huge involving ACLU lawyer Clarence Darrow and lawyer and three time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan Bryan was labeled a fundamentalist Christian (potentially a misnomer as his theology was loose at best) and in the course of the trial was made to look quite the fool The scopes trial was covered nationally with a strong anti-prosecution bias Scopes Trial

The townspeople were labeled moronic yokels and Bryan as a buffoon spouting theological bilge The defense was placed in the exact opposite light being represented as both educated and eloquent The ultimate verdict in the trial was guilty (Scopes had broken the law) and the penalty was $100 which Bryan offered to pay himself Scopes trial set the scene for the modern opinion of Fundamentalists, so in modern day reference Bryan is the picture of how a Christian Fundamentalist should be viewed Christian Ecumenism

Protestant ecumenism ostensibly began in 1910 with John Mott and the calling together of the Edinburgh Missionary Conference Early ecumenism was focused on getting various denominations to cooperate in missions work A major player in early 1900s was the YMCA During WWII the International Missionary Council played a huge part, founding the Orphaned Missions Fund to support missionaries who were stranded by the war Christian Ecumenism

1948 147 churches assembled to join the Faith and Order and Life and Work movements into the World Council of Churches 1961 the International Missionary Council joined with the World Council of Churches 1971 the WCC merged with the World Council of Christian Education Currently the WCC includes more than 340 churches representing 550 million Christians and is the foremost ecumenical group in existence Christian Ecumenism

Roman Catholic ecumenism started post Vatican II previously the traditional statement ruled declaring: There is no salvation outside of the Catholic church Vatican II allowed that others may be Christians, just incomplete ones, thus later Catholic ecumenism is based on uniting under one Catholic faith The RCC sends observers to all major WCC councils, but is not an official member Orthodoxy is a participant in most major ecumenical movements, but still maintains that they alone have true orthodoxy

Billy Sunday In 1862, William Ashley Sunday was born into a poor family, which lived in the United States. Eventually ending up in an orphanage Became a fairly renowned baseball player joining the Chicago White Stockings in 1883 1887 Sunday became a Christian 1888 He became a Presbyterian in order to marry Helen Nell Thompson. 1890 quit baseball and began working at the YMCA 1893 became the advance man for another

evangelist, preparing each city for his revivals Billy Sunday 1896 Sunday began preaching his own revival sermons, using plain language and drama Was a huge success, with many getting saved at each of his revival sermons Began building a temporary wooden meeting house at each place he visited 1907 became an ordained Presbyterian minister His stage theatrics and booming voice enabled him to preach to giant crowds without amplification

Billy Sunday Preached not only revival but political issues as well, he is famous for his Booze, or, Get on the Water Wagon sermon. Set the prototype for Mass Evangelism involving the entire town with his revivals Reached a pinnacle of fame during WWI but lost popularity afterwards due to disinterest and the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy Continued preaching until his death in 1935 Billy Graham

Born 1918 William Franklin Graham Jr. in Charlotte, North Carolina Was raised as a Presbyterian, even hearing Billy Sunday preach when he was 5, he became a Southern Baptist after his 1934 conversion Studied at the Florida Bible Institute, and later in 1943 he graduated from Wheaton College Married Ruth Bell shortly after graduating Began working with Youth For Christ, initially on the radio and then through speaking tours and organizational work Billy Graham

Began performing his own crusades many of which lasted much longer than scheduled Graham gained a push from the media, which gave him much free publicity Graham was accused of being an Elmer Gantry due to financial questions, he responded by forming the BGEA Billy Graham Evangelical Association which provided both organization and accountability The BGEA set a model as well as a standard for accountability in ministry Billy Graham

1960 the BGEA began publishing Decision magazine, other ministries included World Wide Pictures, and the Hour of Decision radio program 1992 Graham eased his schedule due to Parkinson's 1996 William Franklin Graham III became chairman of the BGEA 2005 Billy Graham performed what he called his last crusade Now lives in North Carolina with Ruth Over the course of his career has had the ability to impact and deal with politicians and nations and a massive scale, spoke to live audiences of 250 million Mega Churches

While large churches have often existed, Spurgeons Metropolitan Tabernacle for example, mega churches are a new movement Two major figures in the growth of the Mega Church movement were Bill Hybels and Chuck Smith, with Willow creek and Calvary Chapel A mega church in the U.S. is defined as any church with more than 2,000 members 53% of mega churches have 2-3000 members. Only 4% of mega churches have 10,000 or more in attendance Mega Churches

Mega churches are generally suburban, and non-or at least semi-denominational The largest mega church worldwide is the Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, South Korea which has over 800,000 members Mega churches are often criticized as McChurches for their easy gospel, loose theology, seeker friendliness, and entertainment centered services They are also criticized as lacking in religion as noted in the Economist article on Megachurches "Where in God's name is the church?!?" Mega Churches

The proponents of mega churches laud their increased capacity to reach people and perform Christian function They generally eschew religious tradition in an effort to be relevant to the modern person Calvary Chapel is a mega church, but holds up well against the critiques Im teaching this class in a Calvary Chapel so Im bound to be somewhat biased, but also better able to make a decision. Mega churches are big, so is God, Have a nice day

Ages 3BC 70 AD Jesus and the Apostles catholic Christianity 312 AD Christian Roman . Empire 590 AD Middle Ages 1517 AD Reformation 1648 AD Reason and Revival

1789 AD Progress 1914 AD Ideologies Jesus Born Temple Destroyed Milvian Bridge

Gregory I is Pope 95 Thesis Peace of Westphalia French Revolution WWI

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