Agenda To Get: Handouts and notes from last class To Do: Turn in homework: Do something nice Opener Review New terms Opener 1. Name three common elements among all cults according to Robert Lifton.
2. What is required for brainwashing to occur or be effective? 3. what does the invitation to a meeting or retreat actually do to a possible cult recruit? 4. What is one commonality among all cult leaders, they are usually what sort of personality? 5. List and explain ONE of the three cults we discussed in class. What was their goal or mission? Attitudes Woven into our actions and views of the world Tastes, friendships, votes, preferences, and goals
Mixture of belief and emotion that predisposes a person to respond to other people, objects, or institutions in a positive or negative way Help summarize evaluation of objects Predict or direct future actions Expressed through three components: Belief component what you believe about an object or issue Emotional component feelings toward the attitudinal object Action component actions towards various people, objects, or institutions Attitudes orient us to the social world and prepare us to act in certain ways Attitude Formation Acquired in several basic ways:
Direct contact personal experience with object of the attitude Ex. Opposing pollution when a factory releases toxins and kills vegetation and wildlife Interaction with others discussion with people holding a particular view Ex. If three of your friends recycle, through discussion, you are likely to recycle as well Group membership pressures to conform to groups that we identify with Ex. Distance runners might have a pasta night to carbo load before a big race Attitude Formation cont Child rearing affects of parental values, beliefs and practices Ex. 2/3 chance of sharing political beliefs if both parents are members of the same party
Mass media news outlets (print, televised or online) that reach large audiences Ex. Fox News, MSNBC, CNN, BBC all have obvious slants to news stories liberal or conservative Mean worldview people regard the world as a dangerous place Ex. Average American watches over 7 hours a day, frequent displays of violence leads to a pessimistic and fearful view of the world Chance conditioning learning that takes place by chance or coincidence Ex. Eating at two bad sushi restaurants made you determine that sushi was disgusting
Attitudes and Behavior Why are some attitudes acted on and others are not? Immediate consequences of our actions influence many choices Expectations of how others will evaluate our actions Ex. Family planning, teen alcohol use (Japan!), skipping class Effects of habits it is hard to change attitudes toward behaviors that are long standing Ex. A father may vow to stop cursing around his 4 and 2 year old sons; all goes well for a week or so until they are all caught in rush hour traffic daddy, is it rush hour? Large differences between private vs. public behavior attitudes and behavior
Ideas of propriety social acceptability may get in the way of how we REALLY want to act Conviction when barriers to action fall; evokes strong feelings, you think about it often and discuss it often Victims of drunk driving accidents may have a strong conviction against alcohol use Passionate conviction can lead to major changes in behavior Attitude Measurement Can be measured in several ways: Open-ended interview People asked to freely express their attitudes toward a particular issue more difficult to quantifiy
Social distance scale Used to measure attitudes towards social groups. People say how willing they are to admit members of a group to various levels of social closeness. Levels could range from exclude from my country to admit to marriage in my family Can reveal prejudice based on how socially distant a person wants to remain from members of a group Ex. If you can choose your seat, who do you sit next to in a class? Attitude Scales Consist of statements expressing various possible views on an issue People typically respond to statements on a 5-point scale; from strongly agree to strongly disagree In public opinion polls these can provide useful information about the feelings of large segments of the population
Ex. School Safety Modern Music Cellphone usage Nominal Scale Ex. Gun Control 1. What is your gender? [ ] Male [ ] Female 2. How would you describe the area in which you live? [ ] rural
[ ] urban [ ] suburban 3. How would you describe you political views? [ ] Republican [ ] Democrat [ ] Independent 4. Gun ownership should be: [ ] unrestricted, it is guaranteed under the 2 nd Amendment [ ] restricted to certain types of guns (no handguns or assault weapons) [ ] limited to people in the military or service professions such as law enforcement Itemized Rating Scales - Likert Scale
Developed by Rensis Likert. Here the respondents are asked to indicate a degree of agreement and disagreement with each of a series of statements. Each scale item has 5 response categories ranging from strongly agree and strongly disagree. Ex. Gun Control 1. The area in which I live is lower income, urban and often a location for violence 5 Strongly agree 4 Agree 3 Indifferent 2 Disagree
1 Strongly disagree 2. I would describe my political views as high conservative, right wing, and Republican. 5 Strongly agree 4 Agree 3 Indifferent 2 Disagree
1 Strongly disagree 3. Gun ownership should be unrestricted, it is guaranteed by the 2nd Amendment 5 Strongly agree 4 Agree 3 Indifferent 2 Disagree
1 Strongly disagree Attitude Scale Activity Find a partner (that means 2 people total) Choose a topic you are interested in knowing more about See list on following slide Decide on an Attitude Scale type (Nominal or Itemized Rating) Using google word, create 10 questions in the mode of the chosen attitude scale Share with me on google drive and I will make suggestions for clarification Once finalized I will print and everyone will take each others attitude scale
Once finished, each pair will compile and analyze data collected and present results Possible Topics (choose one and let me know so we dont overlap) 1. School Safety (TCHS specific is it a concern?) 2. Teen drug/alcohol use 3. Vaping/Juuling dangerous or not? 4. Abortion/Birth Control 5. Gun Control
6. Voting Age 7. Drivers license grade requirements (TCHS) 8. Closed Campus vs. Open Campus (TCHS) 9. Cell phone use (daily) 10. Academies (TCHS) 11. Year Round Schooling 12. Teacher Strikes 13. Universal Health Care 14. Dress Code (TCHS) 15. School Renovation If you create your own topic make sure to do the following: Check it with me
Make sure it is a broad enough category that most anyone can respond to the questions (like, um, teenagers.) Have a reason why you want to know public attitudes about this topic Attitude Change Persuasion Role Playing Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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