Agricultural Revolutions - Anoka-Hennepin School District 11
Agricultural Revolutions LT: I can describe the evolution of agriculture Origin of Agriculture (10.1) What is Agriculture? - Deliberate modification of Earths surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain. Crop: Any plant cultivated by people.
Origins of Agriculture (cont) Hunters and Gatherers: - Small groups - Malefemale division of labor - Daily food gathering - Nomadic/mobile Agricultural Revolutions With a Partner: Brainstorm
How would you define a revolution? Revolution= radical or sudden change - Technology and Climate plays a major role in the agricultural revolutions. 1st Agricultural Revolution Shift from hunting & gathering to farming 10,000 BC - 2,000 BC - 1st domestication of plants and animals - Sowing of seeds (harvesting seeds to plant vs. natural sowing) - Rise of permanent settlements (led to creation of
cities, government organizations, and rise of industry) - Started in the Middle East (the Fertile Crescent) but diffused to many other parts of the world 2nd Agricultural Revolution New innovations in technology Estimated from 1815- 1880 (Industrial Revolution) - New inventions of time saving devices (ex: plow) - Improved speed of food production (more food = BIG population growth) - Railroad (transport crops further to reach consumers) - New fertilizer and artificial feed is introduced. - Planting in rows (helps to manage larger fields)
Third Agricultural Revolution - I will be able to evaluate how the Third Agricultural Revolution (the Green Revolution) is affecting food systems, animals, and the choices we have about the food we eat. - I can describe the contributions of Norman Borlaug and how he impacted the development of the Green Revolution. Third Agricultural Revolution GREEN Revolution Land is used more productively: how can we grow more product on the same amount of land? o Example: combined genes from tall skinny rice & short fat rice to create tall, fat rice
(more product + same amount of space = more money + less hunger) Aimed at fighting world hunger by increasing agricultural productivity An underlying aim of this revolution was for agribusinesses to make more MONEY 2012 Revenues that are produced primarily for human consumption (not for animal feed)
What states have the largest amount of crops for human consumption? What states have the largest amount of crops for animal consumption? Why do you think there is a division in crop production? - What types of crops are grown?
Norman Borlaug - Known as The father of the Green Revolution - Nobel Peace Prize Winner - University of Minnesota Graduate - Created varieties of high yield, disease resistant wheat crops - Result: boost the production of wheat around the world. Results of the Third Agricultural Revolution 1. The use of biotechnology to create genetically modified
organisms (GMOs). Common genetic modifications include: adding antibacterial genes to plants, introducing genes that make the organism bigger or hardier, making new foods by adding genes from existing foods, and adding animals genes to plants and vice versa. Pros Cons - More food production - Use of fewer pesticides (better for environment) - Possible addition of vitamins and
minerals - Unknown possible long term effects - Use of antibiotics in food (human resistance) - Possible allergic reactions - GMOs do not have to be labeled There are MANY pros & cons to GMOs! Results of the Third Agricultural Revolution (continued) 2. Agribusiness- Commercial agriculture characterized by the
integration of different steps in the food processing industry. - Usually through ownership of large corporations - Found in developed countries. - Enterprises such as tractor manufacturing, fertilizer production, and seed distribution. Farmers are less than 2% of the U.S. labor force, while 20% work in food production. Although most farms are owned by
families, MANY other aspects of agribusiness are controlled by large corporations. What do we eat? Your Task: Take out your food journal and make a list of the top 5 (recurring) items of food that you consumed in the past six days. Questions to Consider: 1. 2. 3. 4.
What ingredients are in your food? Are they real or processed? What effects does your diet have on your body and health? What effect does what we choose to consume have on the environment? The Good, The Bad & The Ugly Truth about Food Whats the Difference: Real vs. Processed Food Real (whole) Food Processed Food
- 100% natural (ex: from the ground) - Higher nutritional value (vitamins & minerals) - Calories that give your body energy - Food in the purest state (unaltered) - Contains additives (alt. taste & color) - Contains artificial preservatives (to maintain shelf life) - Higher amounts of fat and sodium - Made in a plant/ factory - Calories with little nutritional value
Research shows that artificial flavors & colors/ additives may cause: - ADD/ ADHD - Headaches/ rashes - Food allergies - Many More! The Meatrix How did we shift from small family farms to large
corporate farms? The Meatrix II How have dairy farms changed with the growth of large corporate farms? How does this affect the price of Dairy products?
What can we do stop it? .But what can we do? Support local family owned farms
Shop at local farmers markets (Spring/ Summer/ Fall) Plant a garden Purchase organic, free-range or Grass fed meat. Look for Hormone-free milk products Eat more fresh produce and fruit- whole foods Be knowledgeable: Be aware of where your food comes from & research the topic! Family farmers are being forced out of business at an alarming rate, and hundreds of small
farmers sell their land every week. Organic food regulated by the USDA, and organic farmers must follow specific guidelines in order to label their foods organic. - For example, animals cannot be given antibiotics or hormones, chemical pesticides cannot be used, and meat cannot be irradiated.
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