What is Advertising? Advertising is paid communication in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled Why does advertising exist? To solve a problem- more goods than needed ***If there were only brand of sneakers, you wouldnt need to
advertise them! Where do we see advertising? Billboards Newspapers
MagazinesCarts Shopping Television Vehicles Movies Internet Radio Placement of a product (TV/Movie) Human Directors Covert Advertising Did you know every time you say
Band-Aid or Scotch Tape YOU are actually advertising for FREE??? OR when a singer says a products name that is free advertising too? Stages of Advertising 1. Information Stage: before the 19th century (price lists, signs, town criers) 2. Attention Stage: Use of devices to attract attention (borders/type) 3. Repetition Stage: at a time when it was ruled to be unfair to use
LARGER type, the type was repeated (familiar and accepted) Stages of Advertising 4. Association Stage: graphics and pictures (product associations) 5. Product- Benefit Stage: how will the customer benefit from the product? 6. Motivation Stage: People buy goods because of psychological needs (make them more
powerful/beautiful etc.) Stages of Advertising 7. Entertainment Stage: Commercials that sell things because they are entertaining (You like the commercial so you buy the product) 8. Behavioral Stage: Present the product image as satisfying a real consumer need (organics-health conscientious)
Advertising Techniques ETHOS- Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author. PATHOS-Pathos is appeal based on emotion. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven. LOGOS-Logos is appeal based on logic or reason.
Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logosdriven. ETHOS = Appeal to Character Ethos appeals to an audience by creating an atmosphere of trust. Ethos highlights the character of its source. We look less to the message than to the person whos delivering it. Ethos is all about CREDIBILITY:
The The The The source source source source
strikes strikes strikes strikes us us us us as as
as as authoritative. worthy of respect. likeable. honest. Examples of Ethos in advertising: A doctor endorsing a diet plan. A sports figure endorsing athletic shoes. A celebrity endorsing just about anything. An everyman figure endorsing a product
who strikes us as honest and likeable and a lot like us. Buy this book because Oprah says to! (Shes honest and level-headed and knows a good read when she sees one plus shes rich and famous!) ETHOS
PATHOS = Appeal to Emotion Pathos appeals to an audience through emotionally charged language and images. Pathos appeals to both positive emotions like love and sympathy and to negative emotions like anger and insecurity. Pathos is all about gut reactions that we dont analyze. It has the greatest potential to spur the audience to act.
Examples of Pathos in Advertising Ads that feature adorable kids. Ads that feature shocking or violent images. Ads that show embarrassing situations that prey on insecurities. Ads that feature sexy actors that arouse sexual desire. If you dont buy me Pampers, youre
making me cry! PATHOS Look how happy I am now! LOGOS = Appeal to Reason Logos appeals to the audience through logical argument.
Logos provides reasons and points to cause and effect. Logos is the main method of persuasion in academic writing and speaking. Examples of Logos in Advertising Ads that quote statistics. Ads that argue for superior performance or durability. Ads that claim health benefits.
Ads that use deductive reasoning (X is good, Y is an example of X, so Y is good). Research shows there are good reasons to drink fluids when you exercise, and Gatorade is a fluid ! LOGOS
EHTOS, PATHOS, AND LOGOS ALL WORK TOGETHER Rhetoric usually involves a mixture of all three types of persuasion. Even in academic writing, where logos is predominant, authors attempt to earn their readers trust by appearing authoritative and credible (ethos), and may also bring in emotional anecdotes or case studies as supporting evidence or employ subtly charged
language (pathos). ETHOS: Name of organization gives credibility. PATHOS: Shocking image of bloody body creates sense of outrage.
LOGOS: Text makes argument that reporters need to inform public about what goes on in combat zones. REVIEW ETHOS = appeal to character (TRUST ME!) PATHOS = appeal to emotion (GUT RESPONSE!)
LOGOS = appeal to reason (LOGICS ON MY SIDE!) logos ethos pathos Advertising Techniques The Unfinished Technique The ad claims that the product is
better or has more of something but does not finish the comparison. Example: Magnaflux gives you more. The Weasel Word Technique Sounds convincing at first, but when you look closely, the words are empty. (helps, virtually, can be, up to, fights, feels, strengthened, comforts, as much as, refreshes)
Examples: Leaves dishes virtually spotless Part of a nutritious The Were Different and Unique Technique States that there is nothing quite like the product advertised Examples: Theres no other mascara like it Only Inca has this unique filter system
The Water is Wet Technique Ads say something about the product that would be true for any brand in that product category Examples: Super Lash greatly increases the diameter of every lash. The detergent gasoline The Vague Technique Uses words that are colorful and meaningless, usually with
emotional opinions/often overlaps with other techniques Example: For skin like peaches and cream. The Endorsement/Testimonial Technique Use of a celebrity or an authority to sell the product Examples: Michael Jordan for Nike or Hanes Variation- John Doe endorsement
people just like you use the product The Scientific/Statistical Technique Ad refers to specific numbers, experiment, or impressive mystery ingredient Example: Mollys oven cleaner has 33% more cleaning power than another popular brand. The Compliment the
Customer Technique Ad that flatters the consumer. Examples: Hungary Man: For the real man. The Rhetorical Question Technique Demands a response from the audience to affirm a products goodness Examples: Wouldnt you rather drive a Buick?
Shouldnt your family be drinking Hawaiian Punch? Plain-folk pitch-associates product with simplicity. We bring good things to life General Electric Snob-appeal approach-attempts to persuade consumers that using a product will maintain or elevate their social status, Bandwagon effect-points out in exaggerated claims that everyone is using a particular product Americas favorite best Hidden-fear appeal-plays on consumers sense of insecurity Irritation advertising-creating product name recognition by being annoying or obnoxious. Association principle-an ad associate a product with some
cultural value or image that has a positive connection but may have little connection to the actual product symbols of American patriotism in the wake of September 11 th
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