An introduction to the Shot Hole Borer Beetle Photo: Trudy Paap Background on Borer Beetles 99% only feed off dead plant matter Only 10 spp enter living tissue 1) Bark Borer Beetles - layer between bark and wood
2) Ambrosia Borer Beetles Bore into wood material of plants Live mostly in softer year lines of the wood Very specific relationship with a fungus Generally associated with specific tree host
The Polyphagous Shothole Borer Beetle (PSHB) Euwallacea fornucatus Fungal symbiont (the real threat to the trees): Fusarium euwallacea Polyphagous = 'eating in excess'
Origin: Asia Arose as a pest in USA and Israel killing Avocado trees. The Polyphagous Shothole Borer Beetle (PSHB)
If host it bores into is suitable creates brood galleries for young Then introduce F. euwallaceae colonises walls of galleries and used as food for brood and adults F. euwallaceae then invades the vascular tissue of tree - branch die back, vascular wilting and death of many trees The PSHB in South Africa
Officially first recorded by Trudy Paap at the Kwazulu Natal National Botanical Garden in 2016 Subsequently discovered in Johannesburg and Pretoria Most recently ID'd in George, Knysna and Tsitsikamma South Africa Pietermaritzburg Durban REPRODUCTIVE HOST TREES
NON-REPRODUCTIVE HOST TREES English Oak Blackwood (A. melanoxylon) Avocado Liquid ambar Boxelder Coral (Erythrina caffra) London Plane Chinese maple Japanese maple Virgillia diviricata?? Fig Grapevine Guava
Lemon Loquat Mulberry Olive Orange Peach Pecan Plum spp. Orchid tree (Bauhinia) Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Camellia spp. Camphor Elm spp. Frangipani Kapok Oak spp.
The PSHB in South Africa Indigenous Hosts PREVIOUSLY RECORDED - Coral Tree, Vachellia seiberiana, Combretum sp. ,Diospiros whytianna, Cussonia spicata, Afrocarpus falcatus RECORDED AT THE GRBG - Podylaria calyptrata, Virgillia sp., Diospyros sp., Protea mundii, Leucodendrom conicum, Psoralea pinnata, Rapanea melanophloes,
Afrocarpus falcatus. The PSHB in South Africa Podylaria calyprata The PSHB in South Africa Protea mundii The PSHB in South Africa Keurboom The PSHB in South Africa Leucodendron conicum The PSHB in South Africa Diospyros sp.
Current Control Methods Cut and burn (on site) Chip and compost (under clear plastic/ 30:1 C N content) Cut and solarise
Lures (expensive and not effective rep in situe) Fungicide/pesticide mixes (not properly tested) My Opinion Plants natural habitat vs. current location (genetic diversity) Plants health (weedeater damage etc) Plant age and ecological function
Tool sanitation Remove reproductive hosts Issues we face Educate small scale landscape and garden services
Try stop firewood dispersal The beetle in nursery saplings Looking at tree spp that are NOT getting effected
US Imperialism Before the Civil War, the US's foreign policy was Isolationism. After the Civil War, the US began to extend its control over weaker areas such as: Central America, The Caribbean, South America and the South Pacific.
Fierce as a dog with tongue lapping for action, cunning as a savage pitted against the wilderness, Bareheaded, Shoveling, Wrecking, Planning, Building, breaking, rebuilding,Under the smoke, dust all over his mouth, laughing with white teeth,Under the terrible burden of destiny...
Ice Age Europe: Coasts Ice Age Europe Geography Pacific NW Effects Eventually Glacial Lake Missoula Was Formed from Melting Ice PNW Analog - The Bretz Floods PowerPoint Presentation PowerPoint Presentation Resources
AUTO-PACT. Through the 70's. Originally started in the 1965's. It was an agreement that Canada made with the US to trade transportation devices. This created about 125,000 jobs in 1978. The agreement helped Canada built a strong relationship with the...
Conversion from MSWord to FrameMaker is non-trivial. While it is possible to use the clipboard to copy/paste blocks of text (using paste-special, and text-only mode), tables, formulas, and figures are especially troublesome. A table with 20 rows and 5 columns...
The psychosocial support needs of people affected by cancer (PABC): A comparative study of patient and carer experience in a rural setting. David Nelson1, Jan Pascal2,3, Ros Kane1, Ian McGonagle1, Amanda Kenny3, Virginia Dickson-Swift3 and Olivia Sagan4. 1 School of...
May 2010 * Intosai PSC Steering Committee Project team Greg Schollum - SAI New Zealand (Project Chair) Andrew Baigent - SAI United Kingdom (representing FAS) Therese Johnsen - SAI Norway (representing PAS) John Speed - European Court of Auditors (representing...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!