# An Introduction to the Statistical Package SPSS SPSS: Using statistical software a primer Shang Borui PhD. Candidate Department of P.E. Pre-

I am not an expert in neither SPSS nor statistic, SPSS to me is just a research tool; This workshop is more like informal question-oriented and example-based sharing; you can practice with the examples Since its a primer, the content will be very basic; Distribute the hand-out of example scale and share the dataset

Outline What is SPSS? What I can do with it? How can I learn the ABCs about SPSS? (some basics like data import and entry) Optional (If time allows, how can I do inferential statistics in SPSS?) I will use some examples to illustrate these quesions

What is SPSS? Officially : Statistical Package for the Social Sciences My own thought: A magic, user-friendly, powerful statistical software! Easy to be learned but hard to be a master The ABCs about SPSS-Data input

2 basic questions about data entry and import 1) I have the questionnaire result in paper, how can I do the data entry in SPSS (hand-out): My own procedure can be a reference: a) Create variables in Variable View b) Define variables column by column c) Type the data in Data View d) Save it by clicking

, save as .sav file The ABCs about SPSS-Data import 2) I have the data in excel, how can I import them into SPSS (file GPA IQ example file)? a) Toolbar File Import data Excel b) Selecting the options accordingly.

How to do the basic descriptive statistics Descriptive analysis aims to summarize the feature of the data, including: Frequency (usually for nominal variables); Minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation (these usually for scale variables) Data visualization: bar chart, pie chart;

Step by step doing descriptive analysis Frequency and data visualization: After open the dataset named IQ GPA example: Analyze (your closest friend in spss) descriptive statistics frequencies move a nominal variable into the variable box in charts select bar charts or pie charts anything else keep it default Click OK and see the output window

For min, max, mean, SD Analyze descriptive statisticsdescriptives move a scale variable into the variable box select what you want in options OK Check the output window More advanced level-inferential statistics in spss

Basic logic of Inferential statistics: Based on probability and hypothesis We and statistician understand the world with probability and hypothesis but with different terms. In normal language: No way! The average height Japanese male is taller than Chinese male. Rephrase in language of stats:

There will be no significant difference between Japanese and Chinese male. If the probability is less than 5% (usually), we call it small probability, small probability=significant How to find the difference between groups of data Use T-test as an example, Open the file IQ GPA example: Three variables of IQ, GPA, and Gender.

Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in IQ between male and female Analyze Compare means Independent sample T-test setting the test variables and group variables OK To interpret the result, you need to look at Sig (2-tailed) and t-value Normally we want Sig as low as possible, vice versa for t-value. How to do the correlation analysis

Use Pearson correlation as an example: Hypo: No significant correlation between IQ and GPA. Analyze Correlate Bivariate Drag the two scale variables into the box Keep it default OK Data Visualization of correlation Graphs Regression plot setting X and Y axis Options Fit linear line OK

Tips Equip yourself with basic statistical knowledge. Click is easy, but before clicking the mouse, lots of preparation you need to do. Make full use of Google, Wiki and Youtube E.g. a very useful material appears when you type SPSS for Beginners - Bogdan Kostic in Youtube

Very useful book in our library named A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS My Email: [email protected]