An Outsider's Perspective on European Litigation

An Outsider's Perspective on European Litigation

And Now For Something Completely Different A Canadian Approach to Protecting Olympic Marks Philip C. Mendes da Costa Partner, Bereskin & Parr May 2007 1 1. T y p e s o f t r a d e m a r k r ig h ts 2. C u r r e n t r e g im e fo r t h e p r o te c tio n o f O ly m p ic m a r k s in C a n a d a 3. P r o p o s e d n e w r e g im e fo r th e p r o te c tio n o f O ly m p ic m a r k s in C a n a d a 2 Y o u r A v e ra g e T ra d e M a rk T ra d e m a rk s A w o r d , s y m b o l o r d e s ig n ( o r c o m b in a tio n o f

th e s e ) , u s e d to d is tin g u is h t h e w a r e s o r s e r v ic e s o f o n e p e r s o n o r o r g a n iz a tio n f r o m th o s e o f o th e r s in th e m a r k e tp la c e B a s is o f a p p lic a tio n P ro p o s e d u s e U se U s e a n d r e g is tr a tio n a b r o a d 3 P ro h ib ite dM a rk s M a rk sw h ic ha res

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o rm a rko fa n yu n iv e rs ity anybadge,crest,em 4 M ore than M erely Trade M arks 9. (1) N o person shall adopt in connection with a business, as a trade -m ark or otherwise, any m ark consisting of, or so nearly resem bling as to be likely to be m istaken for (n) any badge, crest, em blem or m ark (iii) adopted and used by any public authority, in Canada as an official m ark for wares or services,

in respect of w hich the R egistrar has, at the request of H er M ajesty or of the university or public authority, as the case m ay be, given public notice of its adoption and use; 5 S . 9 A p p ly a n d O ly m p ic M a r k s ? T h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f C a n a d a h e ld t h a t th e C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic A s s o c ia tio n w a s a p u b lic a u th o r ity fo r th e p u r p o s e s o f s . 9 ( 1 ) ( n ) ( iii) in 1 9 8 1 C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic A s s o c ia tio n v . C a n a d a ( R e g is tr a r o f T r a d e M a r k s ) ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 5 6 C P R ( 2 d ) 5 3 ( F C T D ) ; a f f 'd 6 7 ( 2 d ) 5 9 ( F C A ) T h e te s t a p p lie d b e t h e c o u r t o n ly r e q u ir e d s o m e le v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n tr o l . P r io r to th is d a te , th e C O A h a d s e c u r e d th e r e g is tr a tio n o f m a n y

o f its tr a d e m a r k s u s in g th e tr a d itio n a l tr a d e m a r k r e g im e , a n d s o m e o f th e s e m a r k s r e m a in o n t h e r e g is te r . S in c e 1 9 8 2 , th e C O C h a s b e e n a b le to s e c u r e th e a d v e r tis e m e n t o f h u n d r e d s o f o ff ic ia l m a r k s . 6 T h e R e s u lt O L Y M P IC G A M E S O L Y M P IA D F A S T E R , H IG H E R , S T R O N G E R O L Y M P IC S O L Y M P IA N G A M E PLA N G o ld M e d a l SU M M ER G A M ES It 's o u r t im e t o s h in e . G O F O R G O L D W IN T E R O L Y M P IC S O L Y M P IC S P IR IT TO P 2002 R o a d to B e ijin g O L Y M P IA '0 6 7

S ection9:H owitD iffers P rotectionisnot lim itedtoaclosedlist determ inedbystatute N oexpirydate, althoughofficial m arksm ay bew ithdraw nat therequest of theow ner S om eexam plesof m arksthat havebeen w

ithdraw nbytheC O C :A TH E N S96, C O U N TD O W NTOS E O U L 8 s . 9 : H o w it h a s b e e n U s e d T h e C O C h a s p r o te c te d m a rk s th a t c a n b e d iv id e d in to 3 c la s s e s : 1 . B r a n d in g - T h e u s u a l O ly m p ic m a rk s

O L Y M P IC S IO C 9 s. 9: How it has been Used 2. Placeholders - to protect possible valuable combinations TORONTO '96 3. Marketing - Key phrases for the bid cities & the games THE SEA TO SKY GAMES 10 FlamePizza In1987FlamePizzasought toregister thetrademark FLAMEPIZZA&Designfor restaurant services, basedonusesince1977. TheCOCopposedtheregistrationof themark onthebasis of itsofficial marks for various torchandflamedesigns for whichpublic noticewas givenin1984, 1985, and1986. 11

F la m e O u t T h e o p p o s itio n w a s r e je c t e d . It w a s h e ld t h a t : T v T A h e a p p lic a n ts tr a d e m a r k d id n o t in c o r p o r a te a n y o f th e C O C s a r io u s to r c h m a r k s . h e d is tin g u is h in g w o r d s F L A M E a n d P IZ Z A w e r e in c lu d e d in t h e p p lic a n t s tr a d e m a r k . T h is a p p lic a tio n w a s s u b s e q u e n tly a b a n d o n e d . In 1 9 9 1 , a f te r a n o w n e r s h ip c h a n g e , F la m e P iz z a s o u g h to r e g is t e r th e tr a d e m a r k F L A M E P IZ Z A & D E S IG N fo r r e s ta u r a n t s e r v ic e s . T h e C O C a g a in o b je c te d b a s e d o n its f a m ily o f to r c h o m a rk s .

T h e O p p o s itio n B o a r d c o n c lu d e d th a t t h e fa m ily o f m a r k d e s e r v e d a n in c r e a s e d s c o p e o f p r o te c tio n , a n d r e fu s e d a p p lic a tio n . t a g a in ff ic ia l s th e 12 S e e Y o u In C a n a d ia n A th le te s F u n d C o rp . v . C O C S e e Y o u In C a n a d ia n A th le te s F u n d C o r p o r a tio n file d tr a d e -m a r k a p p lic a tio n s fo r tr a d e m a r k s u s in g th e w o r d s S E E Y O U IN T O R IN O , S E E Y O U IN B E IJ IN G a n d S E E Y O U IN V A N C O U V E R b ased o n p ro p o s e d u s e . S E E Y O U IN V A N C O U V E R

13 S e e Y o u In C a n a d ia n A th le te s F u n d C o rp . v . C O C T h e R e g is t r a r o f T r a d e - M a r k s p u b lis h e d s e v e r a l o f f ic ia l m a r k s in t h e T r a d e - m a r k s J o u r n a l in C O C s nam e. T h e s e o f f ic ia l m a r k s a ls o u s e d t h e w o r d s S E E Y O U IN T O R IN O , S E E Y O U IN B E IJ IN G a n d S E E Y O U IN V A N C O U V E R . T h e p u b lis h in g o f t h e t r a d e m a r k s r e s u lt e d in t h e n e w ly p u b lis h e d o f f ic ia l m a r k s b e in g c o n s id e r e d b y t h e O p p o s it io n B o a r d a g a in s t t h e a p p lic a t io n s b y S e e Y o u In C a n a d ia n A th le te s F u n d C o r p o r a tio n . 14 S e e Y o u In C a n a d ia n A th le te s F u n d C o rp . v . C O C O n a n a p p lic a t io n f o r ju d ic ia l r e v ie w , t h e d e c is io n o f t h e R e g is t r a r t o p u b lis h t h e o f f ic ia l m a r k s w a s q u a s h e d .

S e e Y o u I n - C a n a d ia n A th le t e s F u n d C o r p o r a tio n v . C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic C o m m itte e , 2 0 0 7 F C 4 0 6 T h e e v id e n c e th a t w a s s u b m itte d b y th e C O C w a s h e ld t o b e in s u f f ic ie n t to s h o w a d o p tio n a n d u s e o f th e tr a d e m a rk s b y th e C O C . 15 C o n c lu s io n A t r a d e m a r k p u b lis h e d u n d e r S e c t io n 9 is c it a b le t o p r e v e n t r e g is t r a t io n o f a n y s u b s e q u e n t ly f ile d a p p lic a t io n , r e g a r d le s s o f e a r lie r u s e . A S e c t io n 9 m a r k c a n n o t b e c it e d a g a in s t a n a p p lic a t io n p u b lis h e d b e f o r e th e a d o p tio n o f th e S e c tio n 9 m a r k . C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic A s s o c ia t io n v . M u f t y B e a r s L t d . ( 1 9 8 6 ) , 9 C P R ( 3 d ) 6 5 ( T M O B ) A t r a d e m a r k p u b lis h e d u n d e r S e c t io n 9 c a n n o t b e e n f o r c e d r e tr o a c tiv e ly . A n e x is tin g b u s in e s s m a y c o n tin u e u s in g a tr a d e m a r k a f te r a tr a d e m a r k is p u b lis h e d u n d e r S e c tio n 9 b u t m a y n o t r e g is t e r th e tr a d e m a rk . C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic A s s o c ia t io n v . A llie d C o r p . ( 1 9 8 9 ) , 2 8 C . P . R . ( 3 d ) 1 6 1

(F C A ) 16 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? D o e s t h e C O C c u r r e n tly q u a lif y a s a p u b lic a u t h o r it y ? 1. In 1 9 8 1 , th e C O C o n ly n e e d e d to p r o v e th a t s o m e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l w a s e x e r c is e d b y g o v e rn m e n t. T h is c e rta f in a n th in g c o u ld b e d e m o n s tr a te d b y c lo s e lin k s w it h in g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s , a n d s u b s ta n tia l c in g fr o m th e g o v e r n m e n t, a m o n g o th e r s. 17

W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? M e r e g o v e r n m e n t f u n d in g is in s u f f ic ie n t to le a d to t h e c o n c lu s io n t h a t a n o r g a n iz a t io n is a p u b lic a u t h o r it y . T h e g o v e r n m e n t m u s t b e e n a b le d d ir e c t ly o r t h r o u g h n o m in e e s t o e x e r c is e a d e g r e e o f o n g o in g in f lu e n c e in t h e b o d y s g o v e r n a n c e a n d d e c is io n m a k in g . O n ta r io A s s o c ia tio n o f A r c h it e c ts v . A s s o c ia tio n o f A r c h ite c t u r a l T e c h n o lo g is ts ( 2 0 0 2 ) , F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l 18 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? I n 2 0 0 7 in S e e Y o u I n - C a n a d ia n A t h le t e s F u n d C o r p o r a t io n , t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l h e ld t h a t t h e C O C w a s a p u b lic a u t h o r it y . T h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o

V a n c o u v e r O r g a n iz in g C o m m itte e . T h e d e c is io n w a s b a s e d o n th e fa c t th a t V a n c o s h o r tly to h o ld th e W in te r O ly m p ic G a m e s , w h ic b y th e C o u r t, a b s e n t g o v e r n m e n t w o u ld n o t n th e u v e r is h , a s s ta te d b e v ia b le . T h e q u e s t io n r e m a in s o p e n w h e t h e r , a b s e n t t h e G a m e s b e in g h e ld in C a n a d a , t h e C O C w o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d t o b e a p u b lic a u t h o r it y . 19 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? 2. T h e d iffic u lt y in e s ta b lis h in g ir r e p a r a b le h a r m to o b ta in a n in t e r lo c u t o r y in ju n c tio n .

T h e tr a d itio n a l te s t f o r o b t a in in g a n in te r lo c u to r y in ju n c tio n r e q u ir e s : 1 . T h e r e m u s t b e a s e r io u s is s u e t o b e t r ie d . 2 . T h e p la in t if f m u s t s u f f e r ir r e p a r a b le h a r m if t h e in ju n c t io n is n o t g r a n t e d . 3 . T h e b a la n c e o f c o n v e n ie n c e m u s t f a v o u r g r a n t in g t h e in ju n c t io n . R J R - M a c D o n a ld In c . v . C a n a d a ( A tto r n e y G e n e r a l) (1 9 9 4 ), 1 1 1 D .L .R . (4 th ) 3 8 5 , 20 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? T y p ic a lly , it h a s b e e n v e r y d if f ic u lt t o s e c u r e a n in ju n c t io n in tra d e m a rk c a s e s . T h e r e is n o ir r e p a r a b le h a r m if th e d a m a g e s u f fe r e d b y t h e p la in tif f is c o m p e n s a b le b y w a y o f m o n e y d a m a g e s . L o s s o f s a le s is n o t s u f f ic ie n t to c o n s titu t e ir r e p a r a b le h a r m . T h e F e d e r a l C o u r t h a s f o u n d ir r e p a r a b le h a r m to e x is t in th e f o llo w in g c ir c u m s ta n c e s :

C lie n t r e la tio n s h ip s c o u ld b e d a m a g e d . L o s s o f a c tu a l o r p o te n tia l c u s to m e r s . T h e p a r t y s e e k in g th e in ju n c t io n o r s ta y m a y g o o u t o f b u s in e s s . E m p lo y e e s m a y m o v e to o th e r p o s itio n s , r e d u c in g t h e c o m p a n y 's a b ilit y t o f u n c t io n . T h e p a r t y s e e k in g th e in ju n c t io n o r s ta y c o u ld h a v e its r e p u ta tio n d a m a g e d . N e g a t iv e im p a c t o n t h e m o v in g p a r t y 's g o o d w ill. 21 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? 3 . A m b u s h M a r k e tin g A m b u s h m a r k e t in g o c c u r s w h e r e b u s in e s s e s s e e k t o a s s o c ia t e t h e ir c o m p a n ie s w it h t h e O ly m p ic s a n d c a p it a liz e o n t h e a t t e n d a n t g o o d w ill w it h o u t a u t h o r iz a t io n o f t h e I O C o r p a y in g s p o n s o r s h ip fe e s . T h is k in d o f a c t iv it y is n o t c a p t u r e d in t h e c u r r e n t T ra d e -m a rk s A c t. 22 Why Was New Legislation Required?

Nike sponsored Michael Jordan, who, when he accepted the gold medal for basketball in Barcelona in 1992, covered up the Reebok logo on his team uniform. 23 W hy W as New L e g is la tio n R e q u ire d ? In th e 1 9 9 4 W in te r O ly m p ic s a t L ille h a m m e r in N o rw a y , V is a , th e c re d it c a rd c o m p a n y w a s a n o ffic ia l s p o n s o r. V is a p la y e d u p o n th e lin e th a t A m e ric a n E x p re s s c a rd s w o u ld n o t b e a c c e p te d a t th e O ly m p ic V illa g e . 24 Why Was New Legislation Required? "If you are travelling to Lillehammer, you will need a passport, but you don't need a Visa! This was factually correct because Americans did not need visas to go to Norway. 25 W h y W as N ew

L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? B u d w e is e r w a s th e o ffic ia l b e e r o f th e 2 0 0 6 F IF A W o r ld C u p . T h e b re w e ry Leeuw enhos cases of bee th e D u tc h n a B a v a r ia w a s n o t a n o ffic ia l s p o n s o r o f t h e W o r ld C u p . B a v a r ia d is tr ib u te d o r a n g e e n w it h th e ir c o m p a n y lo g o in r in t h e N e th e r la n d s in s u p p o r t o f tio n a l fo o tb a ll te a m . 26 Why Was New Legislation Required?

27 W h y W as N ew L e g is la tio n R e q u ir e d ? T h e D u t c h t e a m a n d t h e I v o r y C o a s t t e a m p la y e d in G e rm a n y o n J u n e 1 6 , 2 0 0 6 . D u t c h f a n s w e a r in g B a v a r ia - b r a n d e d L e e u w e n h o s e n w e r e o r d e r e d t o d is r o b e b y o f f ic ia ls in S t u t t g a r t . M a n y o f t h e s e D u tc h s u p p o r t e r s w a tc h e d th e g a m e in t h e ir u n d e r p a n t s . F I F A r e p o r t e d ly a n t ic ip a t e d t h is a c t o f " a m b u s h m a r k e t in g " a n d in s t r u c t e d o f f ic ia ls t o d is t r ib u t e o r a n g e s h o r t s t o f a n s w h o r e q u ir e d th e m a fte r r e m o v in g th e Leeu w enhosen. 28 P r o p o s e d L e g is la tio n

B ill C - 4 7 w a s in t r o d u c e d in P a r lia m e n t f o r it s f ir s t r e a d in g M a r c h 2 , 2 0 0 7 . T h e b ill p r o v id e s p r o t e c t io n f o r O ly m p ic m a r k s in t w o w ays. 3 . ( 1 ) N o p e r s o n s h a ll a d o p t o r u s e in c o n n e c tio n w ith a b u s in e s s , a s a tr a d e - m a r k o r o th e r w is e , a n O ly m p ic o r P a r a ly m p ic m a r k o r a m a r k t h a t s o n e a r ly r e s e m b le s a n O ly m p ic o r P a r a ly m p ic m a r k a s to b e lik e ly to b e m is ta k e n fo r it. T h is p h r a s in g is s im ila r t o S e c t io n 9 . H o w e v e r , O ly m p ic o r P a r a ly m p ic m a r k is lim it e d t o t h e lis t o f m a r k s s e t o u t in S c h e d u le s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e B ill. 29 P r o p o s e d L e g is la tio n E x a m p le s o f S c h e d u le 1 m a r k s a r e : C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic C o m m it t e e O ly m p ic G a m e s , O ly m p ia O ly m p ic F a s t e r , H ig h e r , S t r o n g e r ( a n d it s L a t in a n d F r e n c h e q u iv a le n ts ) S p ir it in M o t io n t h e O ly m p ic r in g s s y m b o l t h e s y m b o l o f t h e C a n a d ia n O ly m p ic C o m m it t e e . 30

P r o p o s e d L e g is la tio n E x a m p le s o f S c h e d u le 2 m a r k s a r e : C anada 2010 V ancouver 2010 S e a to S k y G a m e s th e In u k s h u k s y m b o l o f th e V a n c o u v e r G a m e s . U n lik e S c h e d u le 1 , t h e p r o t e c t io n f o r t h e s e m a r k s e x p ir e s o n D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 2 0 1 0 . T h e s e m a r k s a r e in t h is w a y s im ila r t o t h e t im e lim it e d p r o t e c t io n a f f o r d e d b y le g is la t io n in o t h e r c o u n t r ie s f o r t h e p r o t e c t io n o f O ly m p ic m a r k s . 31 P r o p o s e d L e g is la tio n S e c tio n 4 ( 1 ) a d d r e s s e s a m b u s h m a r k e tin g . It p r o h ib its c o m p a n ie s f r o m m is le a d in g ly c r e a tin g a n a s s o c ia tio n w ith th e O ly m p ic s

4. ( 1 ) N o p e r s o n s h a ll, d u r in g a n y p e r io d p r e s c r ib e d b y r e g u la tio n , in a s s o c ia tio n w ith a tr a d e - m a r k o r o th e r m a r k , p r o m o te o r o th e r w is e d ir e c t p u b lic a tte n tio n to th e ir b u s in e s s , w a r e s o r s e r v ic e s in a m a n n e r th a t m is le a d s o r is lik e ly to m is le a d th e p u b lic in t o b e lie v in g th a t a) b) th e p e r s o n s b u s in e s s , w a r e s o r s e r v ic e s a r e a p p r o v e d , a u t h o r iz e d o r e n d o r s e d b y a n o r g a n iz in g c o m m it te e , t h e C O C o r th e C P C ; o r a b u s in e s s a s s o c ia t io n e x is ts b e tw e e n th e p e r s o n s b u s in e s s a n d th e O ly m p ic G a m e s , t h e P a r a ly m p ic G a m e s , a n o r g a n iz in g c o m m itte e , th e C O C o r th e C P C . 32 P r o p o s e d L e g is la tio n 4. ( 2 ) In d e t e r m in in g w h e t h e r a p e r s o n h a s a c te d c o n tr a r y to s u b s e c tio n ( 1 ) , th e c o u r t s h a ll t a k e in to a c c o u n t a n y e v id e n c e t h a t th e p e r s o n h a s u s e d , in a n y la n g u a g e , a ) a c o m b in a t io n o f e x p r e s s io n s s e t o u t in P a r t 1 o f

S c h e d u le 3 ; o r b ) t h e c o m b in a t io n o f a n e x p r e s s io n s e t o u t in P a r t 1 o f S c h e d u le 3 w ith a n e x p r e s s io n s e t o u t in P a r t 2 o f th a t S c h e d u le . 33 S c h e d u le 3 E x p r e s s io n s P a rt 1 G am es 2010 T w e n ty -te n 21st T w e n t y - f ir s t X X Is t T e n th

1 0 th X th M e d a ls W G S B S V W P a rt 2 in te r o ld ilv e r ro n z e ponsor ancouver h is t le r

34 S ig n ific a n t C h a n g e s B ill C - 4 7 p r o p o s e s s e v e r a l in n o v a tio n s u n d e r C a n a d ia n la w fo r th e p r o t e c tio n o f O ly m p ic m a rk s . N o t im e lim it s 1. I t is n o t lim it e d in t im e a s a r e m a n y s im s t a t u t e s e ls e w h e r e a r o u n d t h e w o r ld . T h e C O C a r g u e s th a t th is is r e q u ir e d b C a n a d a m a y p la y h o s t to t h e G a m e s a t h is w o u ld b e f a c ilit a t e d if t h e b a s ic p r o s t r u c t u r e r e m a in e d in p la c e . ila r ecause g a in , a n d te c tiv e 35 S ig n ific a n t C h a n g e s

2. A m b u s h m a r k e tin g S e c tio n 4 is a v e r y b r o a d a tte m p t to c a p tu r e a m b u s h m a r k e tin g a n d la c k s a fo r m a l d e fin itio n . T h is m a k e s s e n s e , g iv e n th e c r e a tiv ity o f m a r k e te r s a t e x p lo itin g lo o p h o le s , b u t c a n le a d to p o te n tia l c o n flic t w h e r e p a r tie s e n g a g e in a b o n a fid e u s e o f a b u s in e s s n a m e , th a t c o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d to b e in fr in g in g . F o r e x a m p le , t h e r e 's a s m a ll f a m ily - o w n e d p iz z a p la c e in d o w n to w n V a n c o u v e r c a lle d O ly m p ia R e s ta u r a n t, w h ic h h a s o p e r a te d u n d e r th is n a m e fo r 1 5 y e a rs . In 2 0 0 6 th e r e s ta u r a n t c a m e u n d e r fir e fr o m th e V a n c o u v e r O ly m p ic C o m m itte e ( V A N O C ) fo r in f r in g in g o n th e O ly m p ic m a r k . A fte r p u b lic o u tc r y V A N O C b a c k e d d o w n . 36 S ig n ific a n t C h a n g e s N o ir r e p a r a b le h a r m

3. T h is is a d r a m a t ic c h a n g e f r o m t h e t r a d it io n a l te s t. T h is e f f e c t iv e ly g iv e s t h e C O C t h e p o w e r t o r e c e iv e a lm o s t a n a u t o m a t ic in ju n c t io n , w h e r e a v e r a g e b u s in e s s e s w o u ld r e m a in c o n s t r a in e d b y t h e d if f ic u lt r e q u ir e m e n t t o p r o v e ir r e p a r a b le h a rm . 37

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