Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) 1 BasmahALQadheeb-2012 2 Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) o
Is one of Multi Criteria decision making method that was originally developed by Prof. Thomas L. Saaty. o Is an excellent modeling structure for representing multicriteria (multiple goals, multiple objectives) problems with sets of criteria and alternatives (choices)- commonly found in business environments. o In short, it is a method to derive ratio scales from paired comparisons
BasmahALQadheeb-2012 3 level0 level1 level2 BasmahALQadheeb-2012 4
o Level 0 is the goal of the analysis. Level 1 is multi criteria that consist of several factors . Level 2 in is the alternative choices. o The input of AHP can be obtained from actual measurement such as price, weight etc., or from subjective opinion such as satisfaction feelings and preference. o AHP allow some small inconsistency in judgment
because human is not always consistent. BasmahALQadheeb-2012 Pair-Wise Comparison 5 Now let me explain what paired comparison is Suppose we have two fruits Apple and Banana. I would like to ask you, which fruit you like better
than the other and how much you like it in comparison with the other BasmahALQadheeb-2012 6 Let us make a relative scale to measure how much you like the . fruit on the left (Apple) compared to the fruit on the right .(Banana)
For instance I strongly favor banana to apple then I give mark like this Researchers have confirmed the 9-unit scale as a reasonable basis for discriminating between the preferences for two items. BasmahALQadheeb-2012 7
Now suppose you have three choices of fruits. Then the pair wise comparison goes as the following You may observe that the number of comparisons is a combination of the number of things to be compared. Since we have 3 objects . (Apple, Banana and Cheery), we have 3 comparisons BasmahALQadheeb-2012 8
Table below shows the number of . comparisons BasmahALQadheeb-2012 Example of Analytic Hierarchy Process 9 For example John has 3 kinds of fruits to be compared BasmahALQadheeb-2012
10 o In level 1 you will have one comparison matrix corresponds to pair-wise comparisons between 3 factors with respect to the goal. Thus, the comparison matrix of level 1 has size of 3 by 3. BasmahALQadheeb-2012
Making Comparison Matrix 11 o We have 3 by 3 matrix o The diagonal elements of the matrix are always 1 and we only need to fill up the upper triangular matrix. How to fill up the upper triangular matrix is using the following rules:
If the judgment value is on the left side of 1, we put the actual judgment value. o If the judgment value is on the right side of 1, we put the reciprocal value . o BasmahALQadheeb-2012 12 o John made subjective judgment on which fruit he
likes best, like the following BasmahALQadheeb-2012 13 o Comparing apple and banana, John slightly favor banana, thus we put 1/3 in the row 1 column 2 of the matrix.
o Comparing Apple and Cherry, John strongly likes apple, thus we put actual judgment 5 on the first row, last column of the matrix. o Comparing banana and cherry, banana is dominant. Thus we put his actual judgment on the second row, last column of the matrix. Then based on his preference values above, we have a reciprocal matrix like this BasmahALQadheeb-2012
14 BasmahALQadheeb-2012 Priority Vector 15 o The priority vector shows relative weights among the things that we compare. Suppose we have 3 by 3 reciprocal matrix from
paired comparison BasmahALQadheeb-2012 16 o We sum each column of the reciprocal matrix to get BasmahALQadheeb-2012
17 o Then we divide each element of the matrix with the sum of its column, we have normalized relative weight. The sum of each column is 1. BasmahALQadheeb-2012 18
o The normalized principal Eigen vector can be obtained by averaging across the rows The normalized principal Eigen vector is also called priority vector BasmahALQadheeb-2012 19
, In our example above Apple is 28.28%, Banana is 64.34% .and Cherry is 7.38% John most preferable fruit is Banana, followed by Apple and Cheery BasmahALQadheeb-2012