Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social ...

Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social ...

Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social, political, and economic tensions in the United States. Focus your answer on the period 1964-1975. French Indochina War France attempted to reestablish rule in Vietnam after World War II.

1950: U.S. supported Frances battle against the communist-led Vietminh Ho Chi Minh had declared N.V. an independent nation in 1945 (against Japan) Truman sent $15 million to France 1954: Geneva Accords Vietminh took control of French outpost at Dien Bien Phu. French surrendered in May 1954

Treaty in July 1954 temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel North Vietnam: Vietminh Capital: Hanoi Leader: Ho Chi Minh Broke up land, redistribute to peasants

South Vietnam Capital: Saigon Leader: Ngo Dinh Diem Strong anti-communist 1954: Domino Theory Eisenhower explained the domino theory Countries on the brink of communism are like a row of dominoes waiting to fall one after the other

1957: National Liberation Front Communist opposition group in the South, the Vietcong, that attacked the Diem government. Ho Chi Minh supported the group, started supplying weapons along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. 1963: JFK In the final analysis, it is their war. They are the ones who

have to win it or lose it. We can help them, we can give them equipment, we can send our men out there as advisers, but they have to win it, the people of Vietnam, against the Communists. . . . But I don't agree with those who say we should withdraw. That would be a great mistake. 1963: Overthrow of Diem 163,000 U.S. military in S.V. November 1, 1963. S.V. government overthrown

and Diem was assassinated after he refused to resign. Social Political Economic

1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Declaration of War Two U.S. ships were attacked by N.V. Johnson got Congress to approve airstrikes against N.V. bases Johnson used sustained bombing campaigns. Election of 1964: cautious political moves Social

Political Economic 1965 General William Westmoreland: War of Attrition Didnt feel confident the S.V. army (ARVN) was capable on their own of fighting off Vietcong.

Requested more troops 1967: 500,000 troops ATTRITION: Wear down the enemy- resources and morale Search and destroy Guerrilla tactics: Hit and run Anyone could be the enemy

City and country Lived among the S.V. population Intentional Deceit Johnson tried to control the news media (body count, military tactics and spending) Moral Justification? Freedom and Democracy?

$21 billion per year World War II/Korea: 2.6 million bomb tonnage Vietnam: 8 million tons Chemical Warfare from 1965 -1971 17.6 million gallons of Agent Orange 1968: Tet Offensive Tet: celebration of the New Year (January 30) V.Cong had organized a massive amount of

weapons along the Ho Chi Minh Trail under the cover of supplies for celebration. Simultaneous, coordinated attack throughout S.V. 100 towns Killed 5 Americans at U.S. embassy in Continued for one month Guerilla warfare defies conventional military logic Nixon promised to restore law and order

and to end the war in Vietnam. Make Love, Not War Culture of Life Hippies Baby boomers Largest generation in U.S. history Best educated Critique of American society

1960: The New Left Youth movement and campus activism demanded sweeping changes Vietnam war was a civil war, U.S. should not be there S.V. regime was worse than N.V. communist government U.S. was not global police

Students for a Democratic Society Called for greater participation in democracy and individual freedom Free Speech Movement, 1964 UC Berkeley Criticized U.S. powerful business and government institutions 1970 Rally of 1,000 students at

Kent State U in Ohio 4 students killed by the National Guard Nixon "This should remind us all once again that when dissent turns to violence it invites tragedy.

1964: LBJs War On Poverty "We shall not rest until that war is won, the richest nation on Earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it. Economic Opportunity Act (Poverty Bill) 19% Americans were poor Lack of education and training

Lack of medical care Lack of housing 1972: The Great Inflation Stock market loses 40% in 18 month period Interest rates up to 20% Hard to buy cars and homes

In 1970 the average income per year was $9,350.00 and by 1979 was $17,550.00 In 1970 a gallon of gas was 36 cents and by 1979 was 86 cents In 1970 the average cost of new car was $3,900.00 and by 1979 was $5,770.00 1973: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Ban Arab oil embargo in response to U.S. support of Israel in the October War, the Arab members of OPEC launched an oil embargo,

essentially banning exports to America Domestic oil production had peaked at a little less than 10 million barrels in 1970 before declining sharply U.S. became increasingly dependent on suppliers in the oil-rich states of the Middle East. Oil prices in the U.S. quadrupled. Price controls led to long lines for gas 1973: Peace with Honor

January 1973, an agreement was reached, and President Nixon ordered an end to all U.S. offensive actions against North Vietnam. 1973: War Powers Act A president must inform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into a hostile area without declaration of war. Troops may remain there no longer than 90 days unless

Congress approves the presidents actions or declares war. Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social, political, and economic tensions in the United States. Focus your answer on the period 1964-1975.

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