Analyzing Data 2 Test.Chi Square Chance Deviation Experimental Data, Does it fit Expected Values? The outcomes of segregation, independent assortment, and fertilization are subject
to random fluctuations from predicted occurrences as a result of chance. As the sample size increases, the average deviation from the expected fraction or ratio is expected to decrease. Mendel
Goodness of Fit Null Hypothesis null hypothesis: there is no difference between the observed value and the predicted value. The apparent difference can be attributed to chance alternative hypothesis: there is a difference between the observed value and the predicted value. The apparent difference can not be attributed to chance alone. Important: accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis does not prove anything, it only provides a statistical means of measuring the difference between the observed and expected
results. Answer these questions 290 purple; 110 white flowers Offspring n = 400 Classes n = 2 (purple, white) Observed: 290 purple 110 white Expected:
300 purple 100 white what is the total number of offspring? offspring n = ______ how many different classes (phenotypes or genotypes) of offspring did you observe? classes n = _______ what are the classes,
and how many were observed for each class? based on genotype classes, how many of each phenotype do you expect in each class in each... Null Hypothesis 290 purple; 110 white flowers Offspring n = 400
Classes n = 2 (purple, white) Observed: 290 purple 110 white Expected: 300 purple 100 white 290 purple flowers and 110 white flowers are statistically no different than 300 purple flowers and 100 white flowers.
The apparent difference is due to chance. The Formula O: observed E: expected Observed: 290 purple 110 white purple white
100 100 0.33 1 1.33 Degree of Freedom What does the 2 value mean? Critical values for chi-square are found on tables, sorted by degrees of freedom and
probability levels... 2 = 1.33 Null Hypothesis What does the 2 value mean? One way to think of this, is that if you did this experiment p = ~0.2
100 times, youd get similar results, do to chance, roughly 20 times. 2 = 1.33 Null Hypothesis: There is no difference between the measured values, and the expected values. Chi Square Analysis: What is the probability that the null hypothesis is correct?
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