Ancient Egypt - Edl

Ancient Egypt - Edl

Ancient Egypt The Gift of the Nile Ancient Egyptian Time An Explanation First, the Egyptians developed a lunar calendar of 354 days. In time, the Egyptians created a more accurate 360-day solar calendar BC - Means "Before Christ" AD - Means "Anno Domini" (The Year of Our Lord) Both of these terms were adopted during the early formation of the Roman/Christian

calendar. Egyptian Geograp locatedhy in the northeast corner of Africa surrounded by natural barriers: desert mountains Mediterranean Sea PROVIDED PROTECTION

The Nile River Early people settled this area because of its location near a source of water. The Nile River Valley had virtually no rainfall of its own. Egypt was called "The Gift of the Nile" by Herodotus, a Greek historian. flows north more than 4,000 miles into the Mediterranean Sea worlds longest river branches create a triangle shaped delta from deposited silt The Important Uses of the Nile

1. Drinking & Bathing The Nile provided the daily necessities of life in Ancient Egypt Egyptians depended upon the annual flooding of the Nile The Important Uses of the Nile 2. Agriculture leads to a calendar Inundation: June - October - SHAIT time of rising flood waters

farmers had time to build Emergence: November - February- PIRUIT the return of the water to the river planted crops & trapped water for irrigation Drought: March - June - SHEMU Harvest time The Important Uses of

the Nile The Nile provided rich soil (from the silt) and water, producing three to four times more crops than regular rain-fed soil. - made farming very productive, created a surplus The Egyptians invented the shadouf to help distribute water to the fields. The Egyptians invented the plow.

The Egyptians domesticated animals to assist in farming. The Important Uses of 3. Transportationthe Nile Egyptians built boats and traveled the Nile The Nile linked all Egyptians - encouraged community life Encouraged trade - used the surplus crops for barter REVIEW 1. _____ Egypt was protected from invaders because: a. the Nile River flooded every year

b. it was surrounded by natural barriers; desert, mountains, and the sea c. it was an island 2. _____ The Nile was important to the Egyptians for two main reasons: a. agriculture & transportation b. swimming & bathing c. fishing & water-skiing REVIEW 3. _____ The flooding of the Nile River is known as: a. inundation b. emergence c. drought 4. _____ The Egyptians planted their crops during the time of the receding flood known as:

a. inundation b. emergence c. drought 5. _____ The Egyptians harvested their crops during the time of: a. inundation b. emergence c. drought REVIEW 6. _____ Egyptian farmers used irrigation to: a. water their crops b. make the soil more fertile c. control flood waters d. travel among the villages 7. _____ Transportation on the Nile was important to the Egyptian civilization

because: a. it encouraged trade b. it linked all Egyptians c. both a & b Return A System of Writing The Ancient Egyptians had no separate word for art, their word for art was the word for writing. This Egyptian alphabet was made up of about 800 picture-symbols called

HIEROGLYPHS. The word HEIROGLYPHICS means sacred writing A System of Writing The Egyptians considered HIEROGLYPHS sacred and believed that they conveyed the words of the gods. HIEROGLYPHICS also helped to preserve the memory of deceased people. In order to keep track of

government records, taxes, and the passage of time, the Egyptians developed a system of writing called HIEROGLYPHICS. A System of Writing PAPYRUS: The earliest form of paper Made from the papyrus reed that grew in the Nile The reeds would be criss-crossed

and pounded down to a paper-like thickness. A System of Writing Not all Egyptians could read or write hieroglyphics: SCRIBES: Pharaohs record keepers Very Educated in reading, writing & math Highly respected Only boys could become SCRIBES A SCRIBES training started at the age of 10 SCRIBES used rolls of PAPYRUS to write on Only the SCRIBES used HIEROGLYPHICS. A System of Writing

The Common people of Egypt used a form of writing called hieratic, a form of script writing. Eventually, the responsibility of reading & interpreting the HIEROGLYPHS fell to the priests. Even SCRIBES lost the ability to read the ancient symbols. By 400 AD, no one could read the HIEROGLYPHS anymore. The Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone was the key that unlocked the mysteries of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Napoleon's troops discovered it in 1799 The inscription is written on the stone three times, once in hieroglyphic, once in hieratic, and once in Greek.

Jean Francois Champollion, a French Egyptologist, deciphered the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts by comparing them with the known Greek text. From this meager starting point, a generation of Egyptologists eventually managed to read most everything that remains of the Egyptians' ancient writings. Return

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