Ancient Greece Lesson #7-Ancient Greece Objective (s): Agenda: Bellwork: If you do not complete this in Google Classroom (recommended), you must do this on a separate paper from your notes, and turn in bellwork and your exit ticket (on the same paper) before you leave class. You must label your bellwork and exit ticket with Lesson #7 Ancient Greece Bellwork and Exit Ticket. How do you suppose the Greeks used math to create aesthetically pleasing spaces?
Golden Ratio: Beauty by the Numbers What does an ideal human look like physically? Greeks derived their perfect proportions from the Egyptians in what they called the Golden Ratio. Divide your height by the distance from your toe to your belly button. The closer you are to 1.618, the more ideal your form, according to the Greeks. Directions: Take the time to measure each other. Write each classmates ratio on the board. Who is perfect proportional by ancient Greek standards?
Golden Ratio Video Ancient Greece: Map Complete the map of Ancient Greece I have given you. Be sure to clearly mark the map, as you will be tested on this. Use page 6 and 7 in the atlas to complete the map. Keep this in your notes. It will be collected once we have a unit test.
Rise of Greek Civilization First civilization in Europe Balkan peninsula dominated by mountains; settlements in narrow valleys; geography=isolation and independence Minoans (2500-1450 BCE) and Myceneans (declined by 1100 BCE) Not Greek Dorians during Dark Ages (300 years) Slow trade and use of iron for tools and weapons Hellenes=Greeks
Return to mainland c. 750 BCE Adopt 24 letter alphabet from Phoenicians Rise of Greek Civilization 700 BCE Rapid population growth=island colonies Development of coinage and expansion of trade=increased wealth Wealthy nobles overthrow kings Polis=city-state Acropolis; agora Athens, pop. Of 300k by 500 BCE
Citizenship=male, Greek born, free, land-owning Serve in government and military Hoplites-wealthy nobles who made up the city-state armies Phalanx-formation of the hoplites; carried shield, short swords, and a spear; marched shoulder-to-shoulder with shields held high Oligarchy vs democracy Oligarchy=ruled by the few Democracy (ancient Greek style)=shared rule by citizens Sparta vs Athens Sparta on Peloponnesus Peninsula
Oligarchy-kings, assembly, council of elders Invaded local city-statesslavery Militaristic society; all boys and men (20-60) learned how to be soldiers; military training included harsh treatment Women experienced freedom due to husbands being away; domestic purpose was to raise soldiers. Discouraged free-thinking and new ideas, study of arts and literature, and visitors/travel Other Greek city-states advance while Sparta stagnates Sparta vs Athens
ATHENS: Males are educated to have strong minds and expected to take a role in civic participation Women are educated at home in domestic duties; not very active in business or government Government run by assembly and council Reforms included land distribution, loans, granting citizenship, and jobs programs Athena and athletic contests Council based on lottery later developed Women, foreign-born men, and slaves had no power to vote Compare and contrast Sparta and Athensthink about Politics and government Culture and society
Persia Persians had enormous empire (size of U.S. today) Famous for allowing existing cultures to practice their beliefs and customs; allowed Jews back to their homeland Royal Road (1500 miles) from Persia to Anatolia Organized into provinces, by Darius I, which were ruled by governors Professional Army; The Immortals Monotheistic Zoroastrianism
Ahura Mazda Wise Lord Persian Wars 490 BCE Battle at Marathon Sparta and Athens unite against common enemy
Delian League Xerxes Spartan sacrifice at Thermopylae Naval battle at Straight of Salamis victorious for Greeks Persians burn a deserted Athens Greeks free Anatolia from Persian rule Peace not achieved until 449 BCE Persia declined after Greek losses
Weakened forces and large empire Strife in royal family People unhappy with government People taxed heavily Famously conquered by Alexander the Great They defended themselves to the last, those who still had swords using them,
and the others resisting with their hands and teeth; till the barbarians who in parthad gone round and now encircled them upon every side, overwhelmed and buried the remnant which was left beneath showers of missile weapons -from The Histories by Herodotus Leonidas vs Xerxes Rise and Decline of Athens Golden Age under Pericles during 5th century Largest city-state in Greece
Athens is rebuilt after Persian wars and becomes the economic and cultural center of Greece Democracy Population of 285k, 43k citizens, and 6k regularly participated Authoritarian rule, failure of Delian League, undermining local nobility Sparta allied with other city-states against Athens 431-404 BCE Peloponnesian War With no navy, and unlikely ally, the Persiansfor territory in Anatolia Disease, starvation, and unrest in Athens
Instability in entire region as a result of war What are some commonalities between the decline of Athens and Persia? Alexanders Empire Macedonians conquered Greece in 300s BCE by Phillip II Wanted to unite Greece and Macedon against Persia Alexander in 334 BCE crushed Persian forces in modern day Turkey and would continue to capture territory over the next few years only to die at 32. Left a legacy of being a fearless leader and the spreading of Greek, or Hellenistic, culture
However his dream of uniting his vast empire under Greek rule did not last. His empire was divided into four kingdoms, making each region as Hellenistic as possible, but eventually the size and differences would cause the kingdoms to split. Beginning in the 3rd century BCE, Rome would begin its conquest over Greece What are some possible advantages Alexander had prior to conquering such a massive territory? Lesson #7 Exit Ticket How are the democracies of Ancient Greece and the United States different?
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