Ancient Rome & The Origin of Christianity

Ancient Rome & The Origin of Christianity

Ancient Rome & The Origin of Christianity Outcome: A Republic Becomes an Empire A Republic Becomes an Empire 1. Setting the Stage a. With the defeat of Carthage in the Punic Wars,

Rome was proving to be the biggest and most powerful civilization on the Mediterranean b. The larger Romes territory got, the more unstable the republic form of government became A Republic Becomes an Empire 2. The Republic collapses a. Romes increasing wealth and expanding

territories brought problems i. Discontent among lower classes ii. Breakdown in military order Roman Coins A Republic Becomes an Empire b. Economic Turmoil

Gap between rich and poor widened ii. Rich lived on huge estates iii. Poor worked on estates (possibly as slaves) iv. By 100 B.C. one-third of Romes population were enslaved i. A Republic Becomes an Empire c. Military Upheaval

i. Generals seized power for themselves ii. Recruited by promising land iii. Citizens loyal to generals rather than to Rome itself A Republic Becomes an Empire 3. Julius Caesar

a. 60 B.C. joins with Crassus (wealthy Roman) and Pompey (popular general) to create a Triumvirate b. Triumvirate: a group of three rulers c. They rule together for 10 years A Republic Becomes an Empire

d. Caesar takes power Caesar has success in Gaul (France), becomes quite popular ii. Political rival Pompey urges the senate to disband Caesars legions iii. Caesar defies senate, marches into Rome iv. Pompey flees v. Caesar defeats Pompeys troops in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt vi. Julius Caesar returns home in 46 B.C.- senate appoints him

dictator vii. 44 B.C. Caesar is named dictator for life viii.Result: Even though Caesar has total control, Rome still embraces some of its republic roots, however it is moving closer to empire i. A Republic Becomes an Empire 4. Julius Caesars legacy

a. Absolute ruler but he also expanded the senate b. Granted citizenship to people in Roman provinces c. Helped poor by creating jobs and building projects d. Increased pay for soldiers A Republic Becomes an Empire e. Beware the Ides of March Many nobles and senators expressed

concern over Caesars growing power, success, and popularity; feared losing their influence ii. Others considered Caesar a tyrant iii. Many felt Rome would suffer due to his ego iv. Caesar is stabbed to death in the senate by a gang of senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius on March 15, 44 B.C. i.

Death of Caesar A Republic Becomes an Empire 5. Octavian a. Caesars 18 year old nephew and adopted son b. Takes power with Mark Antony and Lepidus = Second Triumvirate

c. Octavian forces Lepidus to retire d. Mark Antony falls in love with Queen Cleopatra of Egypt A Republic Becomes an Empire 5. Octavian e. Octavian accuses Antony of plotting to rule Rome f. from Egypt and this leads to another civil war

Octavian defeats Antony & Cleopatras forces at naval battle of Actium (31 B.C.) g. Mark Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide; leaving Octavian sole leader h. Octavian takes name Augustus meaning exalted one -27 B.C.

A Republic Becomes an Empire i. Result: Rome is officially an empire. A Republic Becomes an Empire 6. A Vast and Powerful Empire a. Peak of Romes power 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.

b. Period known as the Pax Romana or Roman Peace c. Population of 60-80 million with 1 million in the city of Rome d. Rome held together through efficient means of government started by Augustus however many terrible emperors would gradually weaken the empire over the next 400 years e. Common coinage made trade easier

More Roman Coins A Republic Becomes an Empire f. All roads lead to Rome; the Romans built about 250,000 miles of roads A Republic Becomes an

Empire h. 90 % of the population were poor and slavery was common i. The Colosseum was used to distract the masses because much of city of Rome was unemployed; gladiatorial battles were popular for entertainment j. Rich continued to live extravagantly Gladiatorial Battles

A Republic Becomes an Empire j. Coming up next: The works of Jesus of Nazareth and Christianity would change the world forever

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