Goals of Research Description Collecting systematic observations Prediction Establish relationships among variables Correlational research Explanation Establish cause and effect relationships Experiments Intervention Address a real-life problem
Program Evaluation Naturalistic Observation Learning about behavior in a real-life setting Observation without intervention vs. Observation with intervention
Observation without Intervention Situation not controlled by the researcher Situation not created by the researcher Advantages of Naturalistic Observation 1. Ecological Validity 2. External Validity
3. Can observe behaviors in situations it might be unethical to create Threats to Observational Research Reactivity Ex. The Hawthorne Effect (Homans, 1965)
Social Roles of Participants Weber & Cook (1972) 1.Good Subject Role 2.Faithful Subject Role 3.Negativistic Subject Role 4.Apprehensive Subject Role
Avoiding Reactivity 1. Unobtrusive Observation 2. Deception Directing the subjects expectations away from the true purpose of the study Subject is blind about their role Double-blind study
Data Collection in Observational Studies Narrative Record Videotape and audio recordings Quantitative measures of behavior
Quantitative Measures Sampling Representative samples Methods of sampling Time sampling Event sampling
Situation sampling Recording Quantitative Data Coding Observation with Intervention 1. To cause an event that occurs infrequently or
that occurs under conditions that make it difficult to observe. 2. To investigate the limits of a response by varying the stimulus conditions 3. To arrange the situations so that conditions can be controlled and consequent behaviors can be easily observed.
Types of Observation with Intervention 1. Participant Observation
Disguised Undisguised 2. Structured Observation 3. Field Experiment
- Added - job application in written and electronic format; hotel/guest cycle with applicable technology; improving guest services; types of effective leadership and management styles; compare right of the innkeeper and the rights of the guest
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