Animals A Survey Chapters 23-27 General Animal Characteristics 1 million + species of animals have been discovered 1. All animals are multicellular 2. All animals are heterotrophs (consumers) General Animal Characteristics, cont. 3. Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that are found in plants & fungi
4. Animal body parts such as skin, bone, ligaments, and fingernails contain collagen (a protein) 5. Animals are diploid and usually reproduce sexually General Animal Characteristics, cont. 6. Hox Genes Most animals have a set of nucleotides call Hox genes Hox genes determine how cells will develop into specific organs and tissues Animal Diversity
Invertebrate Animal without a backbone Vertebrate Animal with an internal segmented backbone Body Plan Symmetry Bilateral symmetry A plane can cut through the animal, splitting an animal into two mirror-image sides
Radial symmetry Body parts are arranged circularly around a central axis Invertebrates 6 Basic Groups 1. Sponges Most primitive animals on Earth Cannot move 2. Cnidarians Can move
Examples include jellyfish and corals 3. Worms: Flat Worms, Annelids, and Round Worms Bilateral symmetrical Annelids have segmented bodies An earthworm is an annelid Invertebrates, pt 2 6 Basic Groups 4. Mollusks Bilaterally symmetrical Complete digestive track
Include snails, clams, and octopuses 5. Echinoderms Radially symmetrical Slow moving Include sea stars, sand dollars, and sea urchins 6. Arthropods
Most diverse group of all animals Bilateral symmetry Have exoskeletons made of Chitin Have jointed appendages Among arthropods are insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and arachnids Vertebrates The phylum Chordata contains all vertebrates (and some invertebrates) 7 Classes of Vertebrates Vertebrates have an endoskeleton Internal skeleton built of bone & cartilage
Vertebrate Classes 1. Jawless Fish (Agnatha) Oldest class of vertebrate Example: lamprey 2. Cartilaginous Fish (Chondrichthyes) Skeletons made of cartilage Examples: sharks and rays 3. Bony Fish (Osteichthyes) Skeletons made of bone Most diverse class of vertebrates
4. Amphibia First vertebrates to live on both water & land Reproduce in water or moist land Include salamanders and frogs Vertebrate Classes 5. Reptilia Live on land Eggs develop on land Snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators, and turtles Amniotes (animals that develop in a fluid-filled, nutrient rich sac either within
an egg or their mother) Ectotherms body temp is determined by their environment 6. Aves (Birds) Feathers are distinguishing feature Most fly Endotherms (use metabolism to keep their tissues warm) Amniotes Vertebrate Classes 7. Mammal Characteristics
Endothermic Amniotes Hair Mammary glands Mammals take care of their young after birth Mammary glands produce milk, rich in nutrients for the young Middle ear
Allow the mammal to hear Jaw for chewing Mammals break up their food as soon as it enter the mouth Vertebrate Classes Mammalian Groups (3) 1. Monotremes Mammals that lay eggs Example: Platypus 2. Marsupials Give birth to immature young
Young grow to maturity inside a pouch Examples: kangaroos, koalas, opossums 3. Eutherians Give birth to live young that have completed fetal development Longest gestation Examples: whales, bats, elephants, tigers
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