Animals - PC\|MAC

Animals - PC\|MAC

Animals What is an animal? Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, nonphotosynthetic, without cell walls Either vertebrates or invertebrates Containing specialized cells that have a division of labor in a organism. Animals have specialized cells to enable them to sense and seek out food and mates, and allow them to

identify and protect themselves from predators . Seven Survival Methods Feeding - herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, detrivores Respiration-exchange of gases Internal transport - circulatory system; open or closed Excretion - removal of waste

Response - use of nerve cells to respond Movement-use of muscles & skeleton Reproduction-sexual or asexual;live young or eggs Stages of Development Most animals develop from a fertilized egg cell called a zygote. In animals, fertilization may be internal (inside the body) or external (outside the body).

After fertilization, the zygote of different animal species all have similar, genetically determined stages of development. Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell penetrates the egg cell, forming a new cell called a zygote. The zygote divides by mitosis and cell division to form two cells in a process called cleavage. Once cell division has begun, the organism is known as an embryo. First layer blastula, second layer gastrula Endoderm inner lining

Ectoderm outer lining Mesoderm middle lining What is symmetry? To have a consistent overall pattern of structure. Three types Radial - similar parts that branch out in all directions from a central line

Bilateral - two similar halves on either side of a central line Asymmetrical having no symmetry What are the body regions? Based on normal orientation of the organism.

Anterior - head region Posterior - tail region Dorsal - top or back region Ventral - bottom or stomach region What is cephalization?

The gathering of sensory organs and brain structures in the anterior region. Organisms with cephalization will always have bilateral symmetry. Animal Protection & Support Exoskeleton hard outer covering made of chitin. Endoskeleton made of calcium carbonate, cartilage or bone. Invertebrate animals without backbones but w/exoskeletons

Vertebrate animals with backbones. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera Sponges Sponges No mouth, stomach or other

organs sessile -(not moving) as adults, mobile -early stage no symmetry smallest - 1 cm long largest - 2 m wide filter feeders reproduce both ways hermaphrodites - containing

both sexes Parts of the sponge Epithelia-like cells thin and flat responding to touch. Collar cells lining the interior of the sponge. Each cell has a flagellum used to draw water into sponge. Pore cells surrounds each pore that allow water to carry food and oxygen into the body. Osculum- large opening where water and waste is

pumped out. Spicules - hard particles made of CaCO3 or SiO2 used for support. Amebocytes- b/t the two layers that aid in bringing in food, reproduction and making spicules. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Hydra, Jellyfish, Coral

What are the body shapes & parts? Two body shapes polyp - specialized sessile shape medusa - specialized bell shape for swimming Parts epidermis - outer layer mesoglea - middle layer

gastrodermis - stomach skin inner layer More Parts Gastrovascular cavity - the stomach or hollow gut surrounded by tentacles. The tentacles contain nematocysts which are stinging structures used for defense and capturing food. This group is considered to be carnivores with

radial symmetry. Both sexual and asexual reproduction Simple nervous system w/out a brain using a nerve net to conduct impulses. Classes of Cnidarians Class Hydrozoa hydras and siphonophores Mostly marine polyp

colonies reproduce both ways Hermaphrodites examples include: Obelia, Portuguese man-ofwar Photo credited by Eleutheria dichotoma

Ectopleura larynx Gonothyraea loveni Class Scyphozoa

Jellyfish Medusa is dominant stage Everywhere in oceans Only class of totally venomous organisms Most are harmless but some can cause death.

Examples: Australian box jellyfish, moon jellyfish, Lion mane jellyfish Body plans of the Scyphozoans Class Anthozoa Sea anemones & corals. Polyps is the only form

and they feed on passing prey. Corals are made of calcium carbonate live in shallow depths make coral reefs. Tropical and Subtropical waters

Class Ctenophora Comb jellies Beat cilia to move Secrete sticky mucus to attack prey Most are hermaphroditic Unique feature bioluminescent All Material Copyright: Wim van Egmond

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms Flatworm Make-up Simplest animal with bilateral symmetry exhibiting cephalization Range from 1 mm to several meters

Found in marine, freshwater & moist land habitats No circulatory or respiratory system One opening for food in and out Contain a gastrovascular cavity Eyespots used to sense intensity & direction of light Pharynx used to ingest food Flame cells collects excess water & removes it Proglottids body sections: old ones near

Class Turbellaria Mostly free-living marine Move by swimming w/a wave-like motion or a mucus and cilia Feed as scavengers, carnivores Reproduction sexually as hermaphrodites that fertilize each other internally and asexually through regeneration. Contain eyespots, pharynx, flame cells & simplistic

nervous system with ganglia. Most common type is the planarian cross-eyed Marine Flatworms Pictures of Planarians Cross-eyed worm

Class Cestoda Tapeworms humans house seven different species. Lives in the intestines as parasites Contains a scolex head with suckers & hooks for attaching & proglottids which have muscles, nerve cells, & reproductive cells. Each proglottid can contain 100,000 eggs. No eyespots, mouth, gastrovascular cavity, or digestive organs.

Almost all are hermaphroditic. Can grow up to 10 m or 33 ft long. Beef, pork and other types. Beef Tapeworms Life cycle - eggs left behind by infected organism. Ingested by cow(intermediate), cow

slaughtered, people eat undercooked meat, eggs hatch and infect human (primary), eggs exit in feces. Class Trematoda Parasitic &

hermaphroditic Blood flukeSchistosoma causes schistosomiasis. See life cycle on Pg. 710 Brown fluke N. America causes swimmers itch Liver fluke

Phylum Nematoda Roundworms

Digestive tract w/two openings Most are separate sexes Protective layer - cuticle Most free-living, some parasitic living in soil, animals, fresh and salt water. Humans play host to 50 types Types of Roundworms Ascaris - intestines of

pigs, horses, humans. Lay about 200,000 eggs Hookworms - burrow into foot through blood to the intestine. 400 million people infected worldwide. Types of Roundworms

Trichinella - causes trichinosis. Humans, pigs, mammals. Eating undercooked pork. Pinworms - most common in US Filarial worms -tropical countries. Causes elephantiasis

Pinworm Original image from Oklahoma State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.) Phylum Rotifera Rotifers transparent, freeliving, fresh water uses flame cells

bilateral symmetry w/cephalization two eyespots all material Wim van Egmond

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