AP European History Ch22 Lecture Terms Early Struggle vs ...

AP European History Ch22 Lecture Terms Early Struggle vs ...

AGE OF METTERNICH Reaction, Revolution, Reform, Romanticism RRRR!! Conservative Triumph in a PostNapoleonic Europe Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Aristocratic reps from countries that helped defeat Napoleon gather as guests of Austrian Emperor Francis I 2 weeks of partying and diplomacy to bring peace and stability to Europe by

reestablishing the Old Order Guided primarily by the wishes of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Russia and eventually France Conservative Triumph in a PostNapoleonic Europe Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) France would be punished while victorious parties attained desirable territorial gains No regard for growing forces of nationalism and liberalism that caused revolution in the first place foreign control of many places Rescaling of liberal government reforms

Congress did manage to allow Europe to avoid massive wars for nearly a century Delegates to Know and Love Prince Klemens von Metternich Austria Dominated congress and European diplomatic affairs until 1848

Uber-conservative Arrogant Preserve Old Regime Guiding principle: LEGITIMACY return Bourbons to France, Spain and Italy Im too sexy for bourgeois lowlife Delegates to Know and Love Count Karl von Hardenberg (Prussia)

Past his hey-day as a statesman Wife and the Prince of Wales dissed from George IIIs court Disgraced over not attaining all of Saxony in the negotiations Metternich put me to shame. Delegates to Know and Love Tsar Alexander I (Russia)

One of the more liberal minded reps Just wanted Polandis that so wrong? Very mystical maybe wandered off to Siberia to be a hermitnobody knows Other reps thought he was nuts he often acted on a

whim Give me Russiaor give me death! Delegates to Know and Love Viscount Robert Castlereagh (Britain)

Wanted to check Russias power Helped deny Russia all of Poland Wanted to strengthen German states and Italy against France Became completely paranoid later in life and committed suicide Russia is watching mein my houseno really Delegates to Know and Love Prince CharlesMaurice de Talleyrand

Skillful diplomat Split the interests of the Big Four who originally attended the Congress Forged alliance with Britain and Austria which saved France from being decimated completely My skillful diplomacy

saved France from being carved up Congress of Vienna: What Happened? BALANCE OF POWER was another concern at the Congress Polish Question Russia, Austria and Prussia ALL have claims Prussia and Austria end up keeping parts Russia, who wanted it all, got an independent Polish Kingdom, with the Romanov dynasty presiding over all foreign affairs (?)

Prussias loss of parts of Poland compensated by getting 2/5 of Saxony, Germanic Westphalia, and the left bank of the Rhine Austria compensated for losing Austrian Netherlands by getting N. Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia Congress of Vienna: What Happened? Prussia and Austria were strengthened to form a united barrier against possible threat of Russia or France this appeased the British France was reduced in size and strength so as to no be a threat

Kingdom of the Netherlands comprised of newly unified Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic under King William I of Orange to check France Piedmont-Sardinia expanded into larger kingdom in SE Europe In E. Europe, Prussia gains E. bank of Rhine, and a new Germanic Confederation formed to check France Congress of Vienna: What Happened? Negotiations at the Congress were delayed by Nappys return from Elba and the 100 Days, but his subsequent defeat brought a great desire to PUNISH the French

Boundaries back to pre-1790 Forced to pay indemnity Foreign army occupation for 5 years Overall, Congress of Vienna did not account for growing nationalism in Europe, as boundaries were drawn solely for purpose of balance of power, not in interests of people living there Ideology of Conservatism: Roots Edmund Burke Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) and the condemnation of radical revolution Joseph de Maistre and return of divine right Revolution is BAD. Divine right all

the way! Ideology of Conservatism: Tenets Obey political authority Organized religion is crucial to social order Revolution is BAD Representative government/civil liberties are unnecessary Nationalism is evil Community over individual rights Order is best, and TRADITION creates order Concert of Europe Quadruple Alliance (Prussia, Russia, Austria, GB) agrees to meet regularly to maintain balance of power in Europe

1818 Aix la Chapelle Troops withdrawn from France France invited to join alliance now its the QUINTUPLE Alliance Concert of Europe: Unraveling 1820 Troppau Things falling apart Italian and Spanish revolutions against the Bourbons necessitated ACTION according to Metternich Metternich advocates policy of INTERVENTION perhaps even MILITARY Brits refuse to interfere only will do so if peace of Europe is threatened, not civil unrest

Russia, Austria and Prussia ignore GB and send troops to crush rebellions to restore Bourbons in both regions Concert of Europe: Latin America During Napoleonic Wars, Spanish control of their colonies weakened, opening the door for rebellion The Concert of Europe turns to Latin America after their victories in Spain and Italy to restore order Britains lack of support breaks the alliance down and

prevents effective intervention in Latin America Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin lead the fight for LatAm independence Brits and U.S. (Monroe Doctrine) act together to prevent intervention Spanish colonies gains independence (1824) Brazilian independence from Portugal (1825) Concert of Europe: Greece Greeks rebel against Ottoman rule (1821-1829) European powers THIS TIME rally to the cause and intervene to support the rebellion! Defeated Ottomans allowed the powers to decide Greeces fate

Greece now ruled by a BAVARIAN king (?) Old order restored Greek War showed combination of new values of nationalism and liberalism with old values of balance of power as Greece was ruled by foreigners. Lord Byron, dressed as a Greek. He died of fever en route to fighting in the war for Greek

independence Conservative Domination of the European States: Britain GB ToryTime! Tories dominate Whigs in Parliament Corn Laws (1815) Good for land OWNERS, bad for peasants and industrial working class St. Peters Fields 60k rebellion Cavalry sent in 11 killed (Peterloo Massacre) Smack-down on large public meetings/demos and dissemination of pamphlets among the poor

Further rebellion avoided with Tory party turnover and concessions made to poorer classes at least until 1830 Score 1 for the Conservativesfor now! Conservative Domination: France France Bourbons are BACK! Louis XVIII maintained some of Naps policies like Concordat w/Pope and Civil Code (Louis XVII died at age 10 in 1795)

Bicameral Legislature w/king-chosen Chamber of Peers and elite-elected (100k voters) Chamber of Deputies 2 groups formed to oppose Louis ULTRAROYALISTS Ls compromises stink! REVOLUTIONARIES Perpetuate more Revolutionary reforms! Louis dies, leaving throne to Charles X, Count of Artois uber-Conservative! Old Regime enforced as confiscated lands from Revolution returned to aristocracy, and Church control given to schools! Public outrage and liberal backlash led to some

compromise, but by 1830, France was teetering on edge of another revolution! Conservative Domination: France Anything you can do I can do betterand without cankles! Louis XVIII and Charles X Conservative Domination: Italy Italy: Congress of Vienna gave Austrians control! In Italy Crush nationalism! Austrians brutally thwarted rebellions in Piedmont-Sardinia and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies made other revolts unlikely

Secret societies such as Carbonari continued to work toward unification/revolution AP European History Ch22 Lecture Terms Conservative Domination Two Sicilies PiedmontSardinia Carbonari: Secret revolutionary society dedicated to a unified and liberal Italy. Conservative Domination: Spain Spain

Bourbon Dynasty reestablished under Ferdinand VII in 1814, who swore to uphold liberal constitution of 1812 and the Cortes, its parliamentary body He then tore up the constitution and dissolved the Cortes Revolt of army officers, bourgeois merchants, and liberal intellectuals forces him back to constitutional format. Metternich and Concert of Europe run in to rescue Ferdi, and force revolutionary forces to disband, advising moderate government for Spain. Ferdi ignores and goes conservative CRAZY tortures, imprisons or exiles all supporters of constitutional system!

Conservative Domination: Spain Die, constitution, die! Ferdinand VII: Im a wee man. A wee, wee, man! Conservative Domination: Central Europe Metternich sees himself as Policeman of Europe, quelling rebellions left and right, but in C. Europe, none really existed! Prussia and Austria dominated newly formed Germanic Confederation, which had no real power other than as a defensive alliance vs. Russian or French expansion or any liberal revolts. German people were starting to embrace nationalism and looked to Prussia for leadership under King Fred Wm. III.

Freddie initially liberal, guided by Barons Heinrich von Stein and Karl von Hardenberg, but refused to adopt a legislative assembly or representative government system. Fred became increasingly conservative as Metternichs influence grew. Conservative Domination: Prussia Nationalist movements formed such as Burschenschaften comprised of student societies, dedicated to a unified German state under leadership of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, fervent nationalist. Freddie Will III passes Karlsbad Decrees (1819) to close Burschenschaften, censor press, and establish government control over universities!

Conservative Domination: Prussia Burschenshaften! Conservative Domination: Austria Multinational State of Austria a ticking timebomb Magyars, Czechs, Italians, Slovaks, Slovenes, Poles, Serbs, and Germans all under one leader, who favored German customs Nationalism=Death of Austrian Empire

Metternich knows this, and successfully represses these forces until 1848 Conservative Domination: Russia Alexander I was a product of Enlightenment and initially made some liberal reformseased censorship, reformed education, freed political prisoners, etc. Still wants to be absolute however After defeat of Nappy, like Fred of Prussia, he turned toward conservatism and reneged on reforms, leading to rise of secret societies like the Northern Union, comprised of young aristocrats who fought vs. Napoleon and learned of his reforms wanted some of these for Russia! Conservative Domination: Russia When Alex I croaked in 1825, leaders of

Northern Union saw opportunity 1825 rebellion vs. ascension of new Tsar in December (Decembrist Revolt 12/26/1825) and heir to throne Constantine abdicates in favor of younger brother Nicholas Rebellion crushed and leaders executedNick goes from conservative to REACTIONARY Determined to prevent similar outbursts Secret police established Russian Tsars Alexander I and Nicholas I Ideologies of Change: Liberalism

Liberalism Doctrine of the Industrialist Class People should be as free as possible! Economic Liberalism Based on Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations Govmt. Should NOT interfere with economy Capitalism is the best system Supported by Malthus Essay on Population which claimed that working class is inevitable. Supported by David Ricardos Principles of Political Economy which legitimized practice of paying workers at subsistence level and no more! Iron Law of Wages Ideologies of Change: Liberalism

Liberalism Political Liberalism LIBERTY peaceful enjoyment of private independence and the right to pursue ones own ends unimpeded Limitations must be placed on POWER, the ability of some people to control others. Protection of CIVIL LIBERTIES and BASIC RIGHTS. Equality before the law, freedom of press, speech, assembly, from arbitrary arrest, religious toleration, separation of church and state, lawmaking by elected assembly, constitutional state with power of minister above that of the king, LIMITED suffrage and office holding for men with property. John Stuart Mills On Liberty says absolute freedom of opinion! Censorship=Tyranny! Also, included WOMEN (On the Subjection of Women written w/his wife)

Ideologies of Change: Nationalism Nationalism Identification with ones fellow countrymen along the lines of common culture language, traditions, dress, customs. Conservatives say NO to nationalism because it would break up multinational states and then threaten the balance of power in Europe. Liberals are all for it! Its the only way to achieve true liberty let people rule themselves! Georg W.F. Hegel pursued a more aggressive nationalism in Germany the nation was the most important source of loyalty in a functional civilization.

Can only be free by identifying w/ones countrymen! Geist spirit, drive/motivation, a means of comprehending history Old Hegelians reason and freedom had reached the absolute maximum and were embodied in the Prussian state. Young Hegelians the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restriction of freedom and irrationality, therefore it is necessary to continue to mount radical critiques of first religion and then the Prussian political system. ignored aspects of his Hegel that suggested the world had essentially reached perfection. Marx and Engels were among this group Ideologies of Change: Socialism Socialism

Modify laissez faire practices because industrialization/capitalism is making the rich get richer and the poor sink deeper into poverty! Redistribute wealth to even things up! Communal attitude toward production and distribution of goods Ideologies of Change: Socialism Socialism Utopian Socialism questions whether private

property and private enterprise for profit is OK Charles Fourier no competition! Produce and live communally! Equality for women! Communal housework and childcare! Distribution of goods and profits should be 5/12 workers, 4/12 capitalists and 3/12 management Ideologies of Change: Socialism Socialism Robert Owen Utopian socialists mills for cotton Improved working conditions Shorter hours No child labor

Insurance provided Emigrated to US to start New Harmony mills in Indiana. Ideologies of Change: Socialism Socialism Saint-Simon: organize all of society into intellectual leaders and industrial managers no need for government! Louis Blanc: government Must meet basic needs of people! Competition is bad and cooperative system run by government is necessary!

Flora Tristan: combine socialism and feminism! Pro-UNIONS. See to needs of ALL people including working WOMEN! Ideologies of Change: Socialism Socialism Marxian Socialism Based on the works of Marx and Engels The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (Communist Manifesto, 1848) Capitalism is a necessary stage in the movement toward the revolution of the proletariat (working class) The pinnacle of capitalism = IMPERIALISM, when you can no longer exploit markets at home, you must exploit other areas of the world Proletariat would rise up and overthrow the bourgeois class, thus

creating a classless society What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. (Communist Manifesto, 1848) Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: France France Charlie X calls for new elections in 1830 and LIBERALS are victorious, galvanized by Cs oppressive politics. Pissed, C. revokes Charter of 1814 and issues July Ordinances in its place: Rigid censorship Dissolves legislative assembly

Reduces electorate Instigates July Revolution (1830), where moderate propertied liberals rebel and set up provisional government Under Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orleans and Charlies cousin Charles flees for his life to Britain and new monarchy is born! Inspired Les Miserables (Hugo, 1862) and Liberty leading the People (Delacroix); also inspired revolutionary activity across Europe. Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: France Liberty Leading the People

by Delacroix and Les Miserables by Hugo. Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: France France Louis-Phil is the darling of the upper middle class even

dresses like them! Expands the electorate to enfranchise them Reinstates Charter of 1814 Upper bourgeoisie happy (but the rest?) Lesser Bourgeoisie pissed they helped overthrow Charles and didnt reap any benefit! Industrial expansion and urbanization instigated poor working conditions and workers grew increasingly angry 1831/1834 rebellions in Lyon silk industry caused troops to be unleashed on rebels and government became increasingly reactionary (making the situation even worse) Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: France Louis Philippe, Une Poire Caricature became an important way to express political discontent. These images

attacked both his morbidly obese physique as well as his lack of intellect. Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Britain 1830 election brought Whigs to power Successful July Revolution in France inspired GB to make reforms Industrial Revolution had been happening for nearly 80 years in GB and the industrialist class had made the BIG BUCKS they protested against the limited election system that disenfranchised them Although mostly landed and wealthy, the Whigs advocated reform to avert a nasty revolution and passed Reform Bill of 1832

extended voting rights to industrial middle class, increasing voting population from 478k to 814k still only 1 in 30 people was represented in parliament Effectively killed Chartist Movement Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Britain 1830s and 1840s brought increasing rivalry between landed aristocrats and industrialists in Parliament

Aristocrats wanted reform to help working class (and keep them from rebelling) Industrialists wanted to protect their own interests through economic liberalism Industrialist class triumphed and reform was based on economic liberalism Reform in Great Britain Poor Law of 1834 placed paupers in overcrowded workhouses overworked and miserable Intended to make them stop being lazy which is how most industrialists explained poverty at that time

Corn Law repeal 1846 Due to work of industrialists Richard Cobden and John Bright who formed Anti-Corn Law League in 1838 They lowered bread prices to help the workers but also removed government restriction on corn trade which helped industrialists Corn laws had pretty much prohibited export of corn to keep bread cheap in GB and protect large landowners now free market allows industrialists to make the big bucks in exporting! Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Britain

In GB, then, the liberals and nationalists were successful and satisfied while the working class would have to wait to be enfranchised. On the continent, the liberals and nationalists were the ones at the forefront of rebellions! Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Netherlands While liberalism fueled the fire in France revolutions, nationalism fueled revolutions elsewhere The Netherlands

Congress of Vienna added area once known as Austrian Netherlands to Dutch Republic. These two areas had different language, culture, etc. Those in Austrian Netherlands were Belgian and resented absolutist rule of Dutch king Wm. Of Orange. Belgians rose up and resisted and successfully established their own independent Belgium with German Prince Leopold Saxe-Coburg as king and a constitutional monarchy. Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Italy Italian States 3 separate Italian states are all crushed by Metternichs intervention

Giuseppe Mazzini joined Carbonari in 1830 Led revolts in 1830s and was exiled Giovine Italia or Young Italy movement for unification One, Independent, Free Republic was the goal Inspired Young Germany and Young Poland Movements for unification as well Revolution and Reform 1830-1850: Poland

Poland 1830 nationalist revolt attempted to end Russian control and policy of Russification Polish rebels dont get assistance from French or Brits and get crushed by Russians in 1831 As a result, Russians establish oppressive military dictatorship in Poland Revolutions of 1848: Setting the Stage Liberalism triumphs in GB Some liberal/nationalist success in France, Belgium

and Greece Spain, Italian States, German States, Russia and Poland saw no such success in resisting conservative order Defenders of liberalism and nationalism fringe groups junior army officers, liberal nobles, writers, students, professors, and free-thinkers Spread of IR across Europe propagated new socioeconomic classes and their demands for change! 1848 these forces of change erupted once more Overview The 1840s in Europe are also known as the hungry

forties or the starving forties because of the frequent famines A major drop in demand for goods resulted in high unemployment, especially in the textile industries This atmosphere was ideal for those who saw an opportunity to challenge the existing political order Demands: The Czechs and Hungarians wanted independence from the Austrian Hapsburgs German nationalists wanted unification other reformers wanted social changes such as land reform,

freedom of the press and freedom to assemble most wanted universal manhood suffrage Revolutions of 1848: France Another French Revolution? Revolution of 1848 erupts due to growing dissatisfaction with Louis-Phils increasingly conservative policies France France had already seen a revolution in 1830 The Orleanist monarch Louis-Philippe (July monarchy) had taken power but had become a

ineffective leader Republicans demanded more changes including electoral reform In addition the harvest of 1846 was a disaster In 1848 the Republicans organized a massive banquet to discuss reform (the banquet was because political rallies were prohibited) French premier Franois Guizot banned the event Protestors marched through the streets demanding the resignation of Guizot France The National Guard refused to disperse the crowd Louis-Philippe fired Guizot That same night the troops panicked and opened fire on the crowd When it was over 40 people had been killed The crowd refused to disperse and started to erect

barricades throughout the city Louis-Philippe abdicated hoping his grandson would be installed as the new monarch but it was too late The crowd proclaimed the start of the Second French Republic The Chamber of Deputies created a provisional government which included Louis Blanc, a socialist The provisional government prohibited slavery in the colonies and proclaimed universal manhood suffrage France The revolution spread from Paris to the provinces However, there were many political factions that wanted power: a) Royalists wanted to restore the Bourbon monarchy b) Orleanists wanted the sons of Louis-Philippe to assume control c) Radical Republicans opposed the Orleanists

d) Socialists wanted to establish a social republic in which the government would provide for the needs of the people When some French nationalists threatened to annex Nice the other European powers worried that France would try to spread their revolution Political clubs formed in Paris, trying to garner votes from the newly empowered electorate France The political turmoil devastated Paris causing thousands to lose their jobs The economic crisis spread to the provinces, but as people lost their jobs they moved to Paris looking for relief In response to the problem the provisional government opened National Workshops in an attempt to keep people busy Almost immediately those who paid taxes complained

about having to subsidize the workshops Women also formed political clubs and demanded equality before the law, the right to divorce, and better working conditions some even demanded suffrage In April the elections were held to elect a National Assembly and to write a new constitution France The conservatives (many monarchists) won the majority of the 900 seats When representative from the far left tried to have the Assembly dissolved the government responded by arresting troublemakers As the Assembly ran out of money it started to close the workshops, which only compounded the problems On June 23, the Assembly declared the workshops would be shut for three days, unmarried workers would be drafted into the army while married workers would be sent

to the provinces When news of the proclamation leaked to the people the city erupted in rebellion The June Days ravaged the city France General Louis Cavaignac, the minister for war, brutally suppressed the rebellion Thousands of rebels were executed by the army afterwards many more were deported Karl Marx saw the June Days as a precursor of future conflict between the bourgeois and the proletariat The Assembly passed legislation prohibiting political movements and limiting freedoms On December 10, 1848 Louis Napoleon was elected president of the Second Republic by a landslide! Louis Napoleons only claim was that he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte this was enough

The romantic idealism of the old Napoleon was enough to give Louis Napoleon a landslide victoryhe later staged a coup in 1851 and became EMPEROR LOUIS NAPOLEON III by 1852the irony! The German States March Days The revolutionary movement spread eastward from France to the German states Like most other European nations the German states suffered greatly from the famines of the 1840s Both radicals and liberals wanted an end to feudal obligations, political repression, freedom of press and assembly, and more participation in the elections The liberals did not want universal manhood suffrage The radicals wanted a revolution and hoped it would eventually lead to unification The revolutions in France forced the Germans to make

changes The German States Reforms were implemented in the German states were towards the liberals, but everyone watched for Prussia and Austria the two largest states Frederick William IV, king of Prussia, replaced his conservative cabinet with a more liberal group He also promised an end to censorship and create a joint constitution for all the German states When troops moved to disperse a crowd of demonstrators in front of the palace someone fired a shot Students and protestors erected barricades in the city The next day the army moved against the protestors killing several hundred

The German States As in all revolutions, once the army kills civilians the situation deteriorates The king, in an attempt to restore order and gain the confidence of the people, sent representatives out into the city He promised to released imprisoned liberals and that Prussia would be merged with Germany The German Confederation accepted the idea of a German Constituent National Assembly (the Frankfurt Assembly) In May, 1848 the 800 elected members took their seats But the Frankfurt Assembly had no national power and it was not supported by the rulers of Austria or Prussia, nor did it command an army The German States

Perhaps more importantly, there was no consensus on unification Some delegates advocated a kleindeutsch a Germany that would not include Austria Others wanted a grossdeutsch a Germany that would include all the German states including Austria Eventually an agreement was reached for the new Germany to include all the German states, but not German states with non-German populations The United Assembly of Prussia (elected after the March Days) drafted a new constitution for Prussia, which took away many of the traditional rights of the Junkers

Frederick William, inspired by the French, sent the army to Berlin, removed the liberal cabinet, and dissolved the Assembly The German States Frederick William declared martial law and set about suppressing the revolutionary movement Forgetting liberal ideals when the Poles rebelled and demanded independence, the Frankfurt Parliament voted overwhelmingly to use force to crush the rebellion and expressed support for the Hapsburg suppression of a rebellion by the Czechs The middle class in Prussia were unable to establish a power-base because they feared both the nobles and the peasants

The German States In December 1848 the Frankfurt Parliament proclaimed the Basic Rights of the German People (influenced by the Americans and French) The Declaration promised: equality for all German citizens freedom of speech freedom to assemble freedom of religion the right to private property

The German States The Austrians refused to accept the Declaration and saw the move as anti-monarchy Austria said it would only join a unified Germany is all Austrian states could join not acceptable to the Germans In 1849 the Frankfurt Parliament proposed a unified Germany with two houses of Parliament and an hereditary emperor Austria rejected the idea The only way the plan would work was if the king of Prussia would become the king of a unified Germany The Parliament asked Frederick William Because the Parliament had no real authority the king rejected the offer saying he would not accept a crown from the gutter The Frankfurt Parliament had failed German unification would have to wait

The German States Crayfish Cavalier: Curiosity of Natural History, found in a village in Russia. (fig. 7) These references connect the Prussian king with the backward-walking crayfish as well as backward and despotic Russia Another later work from 1847 anonymously depicts the kings reaction to the representatives of the United Prussian Diets request for a constitutional monarchy. Titled, How One Appeals to the People (fig. 8), it features the Kaiser on a throne, high above his subjects, vomiting all over two crippled retired soldiers (Townsend 166). Austria-Hungary In Austria the people wanted an end to autocratic rule not necessarily Hapsburg rule Liberals wanted the emancipation of the serfs, freedom of the press, and greater participation in the electoral process Emperor Ferdinand had no plan to share power In Hungary, which was also ruled by Ferdinand,

the liberals wanted constitutional reform and eventually an independent Hungary Louis Kossuth became the greatest proponent of Magyar (Hungarian) nationalism Austria-Hungary While Kossuth advocated reform he was unable to get the nobility to support changes that would undermine their own privileges Once the news from France reached Vienna the liberals and the radicals became emboldened In March, students demanded reforms troops opened fire and killed several demonstrators Metternich, dismissed by Ferdinand, knew what the end result would be and left Vienna for the safety of London The emperor agreed to form the National Guard and opened national workshops to provide employment The emperor also promised freedom of the press and to

expand the electorate Faced with rebellions throughout the empire from various factions the emperor quickly made concessions and then changed his mind Austria-Hungary Metternich fleeing Austria for Britain, 1848 Austria-Hungary As a result of the changes the students erected barricades in the streets of Vienna Fearing even more widespread rebellions the emperor abolished the robot and an end to seigneurial dues (the nobles would be compensated by the crown) Hungarian nobles acted as if there was no emperor Kossuth demanded complete autonomy

Kossuth proclaimed the March Laws delegates of the Hungarian Diet would be elected by male property owners The emperor would be king of Hungary but Hungary would have a separate army and conduct its own foreign policy The emperor had no choice but to agree Austria-Hungary Immediately the Hungarian Diet declared freedom of the press and ended the robot for peasants who owned land (but not for landless peasants) Other ethnic groups in Hungary were completely ignored and Kossuth faced growing opposition The emperor began to mobilize Croatian troops against Hungary The Hungarians then refused to help the emperor battle Italians

In response the emperor withdrew the concessions he had made to Hungary regarding autonomy Czech nationalists revolted and demanded freedom from Germany and hosted a Pan-Slav Congress The Congress was not unified and all that they could agree upon was a joint hatred of the emperor Austria-Hungary In June the hungry people of Prague erected barricades to protest the slow reform movement The imperial governor turned the army on the people and he used cannons to disperse the crowds When the Croatians defeated the Hungarian army it looked like the stability may be restored in the empire In August, Ferdinand started to close the workshops The workers rebelled but were quickly crushed A few months later the workers rebelled again

expecting help from Hungary (which did not materialize) again they were crushed and over 3,000 were killed The emperor ended freedom of the press and imposed martial law (lasted until 1851) Austria-Hungary The emperor was persuaded to abdicate the throne in favor of his teenage nephew Francis Joseph The Hungarian Diet refused to recognize Francis Joseph Kossuth rallied support against the Austrians and the Hungarian army twice defeated the Austrians On April 14, 1849 the Hungarian Diet proclaimed Magyar independence and made Kossuth the president Francis Joseph called on Russia to help suppress the Hungarians Nicholas I sent 140,000 troops Kossuth asked the Frankfurt Assembly for help and was

refused The British didnt want Russian intervention, but wanted Hapsburgs to buffer against the French The Hungarians were defeated by the Russians and Kossuth fled to Turkey The emperor executed suspected troublemakers and imposed martial law Italy Italy was not unified and much of northern Italy was controlled by either France or Austria King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia made some minor concessions by easing censorship and creating a bicameral legislature The reform movement in Italy was hampered by the many different objectives of the various groups:

liberals wanted political reform radicals wanted to create a republic workers wanted benefits In March, thousands marched on the palace of the Austrian governor-general in Milan demanding liberal reforms Italy Almost immediately, like in other cities, barricades were erected For Five Glorious Days street fighting between the Austrian army and the protestors took place The Austrian army, led by Count Joseph Radetzky, was forced out of the city Other Italians towns rebelled against Austrian rule Mazzini took over Risorgimento (resurgence) movement for unification. Formed organization called Young Italy (Giovine

Italia) in 1831, which advocated patriotism and nationalism. Provoked revolts from south in Sicily upward, and almost was successful, as citizens in Lombardy and Venetia rebelled against Austrian control. Many looked to Charles Albert for leadership Charles Albert believed the best way to unify the peninsula was through negotiated settlement not violence also, if Piedmont attacked the Austrians then the French might join the Austrians against the Italians Eventually, because of popular appeal, he changed his mind and raised an army Italy When he had defeated the Austrians and taken control of several of the regions he decided to consolidate his power rather than chase the Austrians Tensions between the regions stalled the unification movement

Pope Pius IX released some liberal prisoners and looked like a possible leader, but he was not going to challenge the Catholic Hapsburgs The pope said he would not support a war against Austria The French supported the Italians against the Austrians because they wanted to annex Nice and Savoy but the British persuaded them not to interfere The reinforced Austrians, led by Radetzky, defeated the Italians at Custoza, near Milan Italy Charles Albert fled the city and went to Turin and tried to negotiate a settlement with the Austrians When the Austrians were forced to deal with the Hungarians, nationalist elements in Piedmont persuaded Charles Albert to start fighting again When the Piedmont army crossed into Lombardy Radetzky again defeated the Italians in March 1849

Charles Albert asked for an armistice and abdicated the throne to his son Victor Emmanuel II Piedmont also gave up all claims to Lombardy When the nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini arrived in Rome in March 1849, Pope Pius IX began to fear the creation of an Italian republic Louis Napoleon of France sent 10,000 French troops to Rome in order to gain favor with French Catholics Italian unification would have to wait Italy The Legacy of Revolution The Revolutions of 1848 raised the hopes of liberals and nationalists from all across Europe But the sad fact was that while some enjoyed initial success, they all failed, and failed miserably The repercussions that followed reasserted the old order and

served to make European nations even stronger The volunteer armies proved no match for the professional armies of the counter-revolutionary movement Yet 1848 did create the idea of workers demanding political rights and that political unrest would only become more evident during the rest of the century Ironically, the main goal of nationalists in Italy and Germany was realized by unification On a global scale, the dissemination of committed socialists to areas like the United States and Latin America helped shape the future of those regions In Austria the monarchy had been able to survive and keep the polyglot empire in tact by using forces from one area on people of different ethnicity Emergence of an Ordered Society Police Forces:

Industrialization and urbanization led to increase in criminal behavior something had to be done! In France, serjents established by prefect of Paris, Louis-Maurice Debelleyme in 1828, whose numbers grew to 4,000 by end of 19th century. In Britain, Robert Peel introduced legislation to get police force. Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 established police force Bobbies. In German states, Schutzmannschaft established, modeled after London police force Prison Reform More cops = more arrests! Britain used to ship criminals to Australia, but this slowed in the

1830s as colonists got increasingly pissed (practice of penal transportation) Goals in prisons changed from punishment to rehabilitation and transformation. Individual cells replaced communal living, which seemed to make everyone more evil. France also did this to make a more ordered and disciplined society. Romanticism Romanticism developed as a reaction against Enlightenment thinking and preoccupation with discovering the truth through reason. Reason not BAD, but you must also use your intuition and

emotion to know the world. Characteristics of Romanticism Began in Germany with group of German poets who emphasized emotion and sentiment. Inspired by tragic characters such as Goethes Werther, in The Sorrows of Young Werther, who was rejected by society and the woman he loved, but let sentiment drive him until he committed suicide. individualism or interest in unique traits of each person. Everyone has a geist that makes them unique. (Spirit) Many romantics rebelled against societys conventions

wore weird outfits and long hair and crazy beards. Standing up against society and being an outsider are both heroic things! Romantics sometimes embraced RELIGION due to its spiritual nature Romanticism - Literature Gothic novel and Gothic stories (frightening and fantastic) developed as a genre (Mary Shelleys Frankenstein or Poes stories) go back to medieval era of heroes and even Gothic architecture. Many of these romantics sought out-of-the-ordinary in life through drugs, dream interpretation, and suicidal depression. Many stories and poems about losing ones love to a fatal disease (Poe) Romantic Poets

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, William Wordsworth love of nature, rebel against society, melancholy romantic heroes. Shelley drowned in the Mediterranean Byron died on the way to fighting in the war for Greek independence. Wordsworth spoke out against reducing nature to a cold scientific explanation, as did Mary Shelley in Frankenstein dangers of trying to conquer nature with science. Romanticism - Art All artistic expression a reflection of artists

inner feelings Reject principles of classicism. Caspar David Friedrich (left) Malford William Turner Eugene Delacroix exotic, misty, nature emphasis, emotiondriven, landscapes, FEELING is key. Romanticism - Music Beethoven bridged gap bet. Classicism and romanticism his early 18th century compositions were like Haydn and Mozart, but Eroica broke the mold in 1800.

Beethoven battled his deafness from 1800 on and composed the chorale finale of the lively 9th while totally deaf! Berlioz followed in the romantic tradition Symphonie Fantastique was the story of an affair equipped with opium induced witch gatherings! Religious Revivalism Catholicism Catholic revival occurred as a result first of conservative/reactionary restoration of aristocratic power A second revival came as a result of romanticism, which looked to Middle Ages and Christianity as awe-inspiring, expecially in Germany, where many

catholic conversions occurred. Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand spearheaded this in his work Genius Of Christianity where he notes tat Catholicism is the most sentimental o religions. Protestant revival too Awakening Methodism in GB that spread to France and Switzerland and Scotland Pietism in Germany hellfire and brimstone style appeal to emotion for the educationally challenged.

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