AP Exam Review

AP Exam Review

AP Exam Review Mrs. Ashley 9-1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Extinction of Species? Concept 9-1 Species are becoming extinct 100 to 1,000 times faster than they were before modern humans arrived on the earth (the background rate), and by the end of this century, the extinction rate is expected to be 10,000 times the background rate.

Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms (1) Endangered species So few members that the species could soon become extinct Threatened species (vulnerable species) Still enough members to survive, but numbers declining -may soon be endangered Characteristics of Species That Are Prone to Ecological

and Biological Extinction Fig. 9-3, p. 194 Percentage of Various Species Threatened with Premature Extinction Fig. 9-4, p. 194 9-2 Why Should We Care about the Rising Rate of Species Extinction?

Concept 9-2 We should prevent the premature extinction of wild species because of the economic and ecological services they provide and because they have a right to exist regardless of their usefulness to us. 9-3 How do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction? Concept 9-3 The greatest threats to any species are (in order) loss or degradation of its habitat, harmful invasive species, human

population growth, pollution, climate change, and overexploitation. Loss of Habitat Is the Single Greatest Threat to Species: Remember HIPPCO Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation Invasive (nonnative) species Population and resource use growth Pollution Climate change

Overexploitation Habitat Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation Large intact habitat divided by roads, crops, urban development Leaves habitat islands Blocks migration routes Divides populations Inhibits migrations and colonization Inhibits finding food

National parks and nature reserves as habitat islands Causes of Depletion and Premature Extinction of World Species Fig. 9-9, p. 198 Some Deliberately Introduced Species Can Disrupt Ecosystems Most species introductions are beneficial

Food Shelter Medicine Aesthetic enjoyment Nonnative species may have no natural

Predators Competitors Parasites Pathogens Some Harmful Nonnative Species

in the United States Fig. 9-11, p. 200 Deliberately Introduced Species Purple loosestrife European starling African honeybee (Killer bee)

Nutria Salt cedar (Tamarisk) Marine toad (Giant Water hyacinth toad) Japanese beetle Hydrilla

European wild boar (Feral pig) Fig. 9-11a, p. 200 Accidentally Introduced Species Sea lamprey (attached to lake trout)

Argentina fire ant Brown tree snake Eurasian ruffe Common pigeon (Rock dove) Formosan termite

Zebra mussel Asian long-horned beetle Asian tiger mosquito Gypsy moth larvae Fig. 9-11b, p. 200

Prevention Is the Best Way to Reduce Threats from Invasive Species Prevent them from becoming established Learn the characteristics of the species Set up research programs Try to find natural ways to control them International treaties Public education What Can You Do? Controlling Invasive Species

Fig. 9-14, p. 203 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Fig. 9-15, p. 203 Case Study: Where Have All the Honeybees Gone? Honeybees responsible for 80% of insectpollinated plants and nearly 1/3 human food 2006: 30% drop in honeybee populations

Dying due to Pesticides? Parasites? Viruses, fungi, bacteria? Microwave radiation cell phones? Bee colony collapse syndrome Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (1) 1/3 of 800 bird species in U.S. are endangered or threatened

Habitat loss and fragmentation of the birds breeding habitats Forests cleared for farms, lumber plantations, roads, and development Intentional or accidental introduction of nonnative species Eat the birds Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (2) Seabirds caught and drown in fishing equipment

Migrating birds fly into power lines, communication towers, and skyscrapers Other threats Oil spills Pesticides Herbicides Ingestion of toxic lead shotgun pellets Case Study: A Disturbing Message from the Birds (3) Greatest new threat: Climate change

Environmental indicators Economic and ecological services International Treaties and National Laws Help to Protect Species 1975: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Signed by 172 countries Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD) Focuses on ecosystems

Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S.) Endangered Species Act Endangered Species Act (ESA): 1973 and later amended in 1982, 1985, and 1988 Identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroad National Marine Fisheries Service for ocean species U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for all others Science Focus: Accomplishments of the

Endangered Species Act (2) Three ways to improve ESA 1.Greatly increase funding 2.Develop recovery plans more quickly 3.When a species is first listed, establish the core of its habitat thats critical for survival New law needed to focus on sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem health We Can Establish Wildlife Refuges and Other Protected Areas

1903: Theodore Roosevelt Wildlife refuges Most are wetland sanctuaries More needed for endangered plants Could abandoned military lands be used for wildlife habitats? Gene Banks, Botanical Gardens, and Wildlife Farms Can Help Protect Species Gene or seed banks Preserve genetic material of endangered plants

Botanical gardens and arboreta Living plants Farms to raise organisms for commercial sale What Can You Do? Protecting Species Fig. 9-22, p. 213 The Precautionary Principle

Precautionary principle: act to prevent or reduce harm when preliminary evidence indicates acting is needed Species: primary components of biodiversity Preservation of species Preservation of ecosystems 7-1 What Factors Influence Climate? Concept 7-1 Key factors that determine an areas climate are incoming solar energy, the earths rotation, global patterns of air and

water movement, gases in the atmosphere, and the earths surface features. Global Air Circulation Fig. 7-3, p. 149 LOW PRESSURE Cool, dry air

HIGH PRESSURE Heat released radiates to space Falls, is compressed, warms Warm, dry air HIGH PRESSURE

Condensation and precipitation Rises, expands, cools Flows toward low pressure, picks up

moisture and heat Moist surface warmed by sun Hot, wet air LOW PRESSURE Fig. 7-4, p. 150

Connected Deep and Shallow Ocean Currents Fig. 7-5, p. 150 The Earth Has Many Different Climates (3) El Nio-Southern Oscillation Every few years Prevailing winds in tropical Pacific Ocean change direction Affects much of earths weather for 1-2 years

Link between air circulation, ocean currents, and biomes Normal and El Nio Conditions Figure 4, Supplement 7 Greenhouse Gases Warm the Lower Atmosphere Greenhouse gases

H2O CO2 CH4 N2O Natural greenhouse effect Gases keep earth habitable Human-enhanced global warming Flow of Energy to and from the Earth

Fig. 3-4, p. 57 Earths Surface Features Affect Local Climates Differential heat absorption by land and water Land and sea breezes Rain shadow effect Most precipitation falls on the windward side of mountain ranges Deserts leeward

Cities create microclimates Climate Helps Determine Where Organisms Can Live Major biomes: large land regions with certain types of climate and dominant plant life Not uniform Mosaic of patches Latitude and elevation

Annual precipitation Temperature Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes Fig. 7-8, p. 153 Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors

Fig. 7-9, p. 154 There Are Three Major Types of Deserts 1. Tropical deserts 2. Temperate deserts 3. Cold deserts Fragile ecosystem

Slow plant growth Low species diversity Slow nutrient recycling Lack of water Science Focus: Staying Alive in the Desert Beat the heat/every drop of water counts

Plant adaptations Succulents Deep tap roots Animal strategies and adaptations Physiology and anatomy Behavior Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands

Fig. 7-11, p. 157 There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (3) Arctic tundra: fragile biome Plants close to ground to conserve heat Most growth in short summer Animals have thick fur Permafrost Underground soil that stays frozen

Alpine tundra: above tree line in mountains There Are Three Major Types of Forests (1) 1. Tropical 2. Temperate 3. Cold Northern coniferous and boreal Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests

Fig. 7-13, p. 160 There Are Three Major Types of Forests (2) Tropical rain forests Temperature and moisture Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches Little wind: significance Rapid recycling of scarce soil nutrients Impact of human activities

There Are Three Major Types of Forests (3) Temperate deciduous forests Temperature and moisture Broad-leaf trees Slow rate of decomposition: significance Impact of human activities NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION

Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems Deserts Grasslands Forests Clearing for Large desert cities Conversion agriculture, to cropland

Soil destruction by Release of CO livestock grazing, 2 timber, and urban off-road vehicles to atmosphere development from burning Soil salinization grassland Conversion of from irrigation diverse forests to Overgrazing tree plantations

Depletion of by livestock groundwater Damage from offOil production road vehicles Land disturbance and off-road and pollution from vehicles in Pollution of mineral extraction arctic tundra forest streams Mountains

Agriculture Timber extraction Mineral extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road

vehicles Stepped Art Fig. 7-18, p. 165 10-1 What Are the Major Threats to Forest Ecosystems? Concept 10-1A Forest ecosystems provide ecological services far greater in value than the value of raw materials obtained from forests. Concept 10-1B Unsustainable cutting and

burning of forests, along with diseases and insects, all made worse by projected climate change, are the chief threats to forest ecosystems. Forests Vary in Their Make-Up, Age, and Origins Old-growth or primary forest (36%) Uncut, or not disturbed for several hundred years Reservoirs of biodiversity

Second-growth forest (60%) Secondary ecological succession Tree plantation, (tree farm, commercial forest) (4%) May supply most industrial wood in the future Forests Provide Important Economic and Ecological Services (1) Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce soil erosion Absorb and release water

Purify water and air Influence local and regional climate Store atmospheric carbon Habitats Forests Provide Important Economic and Ecological Services (2) Wood for fuel Lumber Pulp to make paper Mining

Livestock grazing Recreation Employment Natural Capital Forests Ecological Services Economic Services Support energy flow

and chemical cycling Fuelwood Reduce soil erosion Lumber Absorb and release water

Pulp to make paper Purify water and air Mining Influence local and regional climate Livestock grazing Store atmospheric carbon

Recreation Provide numerous wildlife habitats Jobs Fig. 10-4, p. 220 Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on Natures Ecological Services

Forests valued for ecological services Nutrient cycling Climate regulation Erosion control Waste treatment Recreation Raw materials $4.7 trillion per year Estimated Annual Global Economic Values of

Ecological Services Provided by Forests Fig. 10-A, p. 221 Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems (1) Increased erosion Sediment runoff into waterways Habitat fragmentation Loss of biodiversity

(a) Selective cutting Clear stream Fig. 10-6a, p. 222 (b) Clear-cutting Muddy stream

Fig. 10-6b, p. 222 (c) Strip cutting Uncut Cut 1 year ago Dirt road Cut 310

years ago Uncut Clear stream Fig. 10-6c, p. 222 Trade-offs: Advantages and Disadvantages of Clear-Cutting Forests

Fig. 10-8, p. 223 Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems (1) Surface fires Usually burn leaf litter and undergrowth May provide food in the form of vegetation that sprouts after fire

Crown fires Extremely hot: burns whole trees Kill wildlife Increase soil erosion Nonnative Insect Species and Disease Organisms in U.S. Forests Figure 10, Supplement 8 Causes of Tropical Deforestation

Are Varied and Complex Population growth Poverty of subsistence farmers Ranching Lumber

Plantation farms: palm oil Begins with building of roads Many forests burned Can tilt tropical forest to tropical savanna NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Causes of the Destruction and Degradation of Tropical Forests Basic Causes Secondary Causes

Not valuing ecological services Crop and timber exports Government policies Poverty Population growth Cattle ranching Roads Fires

Settler farming Cash crops Tree plantations Cattle ranching Logging Tree plantations Logging

Cash crops Settler farming Roads Fires Stepped Art Fig. 10-14, p. 228

Solution: Sustainable Forestry Fig. 10-16, p. 230 Science Focus: Certifying Sustainably Grown Timber Collins Pine Owns and manages protective timberland Forest Stewardship Council Nonprofit

Developed list of environmentally sound practices Certifies timber and products 2009: 5% of worlds forest have certified to FSC standards Also certifies manufacturers of wood products We Can Improve the Management of Forest Fires The Smokey Bear educational campaign Prescribed fires Allow fires on public lands to burn Protect structures in fire-prone areas

Thin forests in fire-prone areas We Can Reduce the Demand for Harvested Trees Improve the efficiency of wood use 60% of U.S. wood use is wasted Make tree-free paper Kenaf Hemp

Governments and Individuals Can Act to Reduce Tropical Deforestation Reduce fuelwood demand Practice small-scale sustainable agriculture and forestry in tropical forest Government protection Debt-for-nature swaps/conservation concessions Plant trees Buy certified lumber and wood products Solutions

Sustaining Tropical Forests Prevention Restoration Protect the most diverse and endangered areas Encourage regrowth through secondary succession

Educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry Subsidize only sustainable forest use Protect forests through debt-for-nature swaps and conservation concessions Rehabilitate

degraded areas Certify sustainably grown timber Reduce poverty Slow population growth Concentrate farming and ranching in alreadycleared areas Fig. 10-19, p. 233

Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (1) Rangelands Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that provide forage for animals Pastures Managed grasslands and fences meadows used for grazing livestock Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed (2) Important ecological services of grasslands

Soil formation Erosion control Nutrient cycling Storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in biomass Maintenance of diversity Some Rangelands are Overgrazed (3) Overgrazing of rangelands Reduces grass cover Leads to erosion of soil by water and wind Soil becomes compacted

Enhances invasion of plant species that cattle wont eat Malapi Borderlands Arizona-New Mexico border Management success story Case Study: Grazing and Urban Development the American West American southwest population surge since 1980 Land trust groups: conservation easements

Reduce the harmful environmental impact of herds Rotate cattle away from riparian areas Use less fertilizers and pesticides Operate ranch more economically and sustainably Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks (1) 58 Major national parks in the U.S. Biggest problem may be popularity Noise

Congestion Pollution Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife Solutions: National Parks Fig. 10-24, p. 239 Designing and Connecting Nature Reserves Large versus small reserves The buffer zone concept

United Nations: 553 biosphere reserves in 107 countries Habitat corridors between isolated reserves Advantages Disadvantages Case Study: Controversy over Wilderness Protection in the United States Wilderness Act of 1964 Protect undeveloped lands

2% of lower 48 protected, mostly in West 10-fold increase from 1970 to 2010 2009 2 million more acres get wilderness protection 50% increase in length of wild and scenic rivers Protecting Global Biodiversity Hot Spots Is an Urgent Priority 34 biodiversity hot spots rich in plant species 2% of earths surface, but 50% of flowering plant

species and 42% of terrestrial vertebrates 1.2 billion people Drawbacks of this approach May not be rich in animal diversity People may be displaced and/or lose access to important resources Endangered Natural Capital: 34 Biodiversity Hotspots

Fig. 10-27, p. 243 What Can You Do? Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity Fig. 10-28, p. 247

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