AP Exam Review Part 3

AP Exam Review Part 3

AP Exam Review Part 3 Mrs. Ashley Core Case Study: Organic Agriculture Is on the Rise Organic agriculture Crops grown without using synthetic pesticides, synthetic inorganic fertilizers, or genetically engineered seeds Animals grown without using antibiotics or synthetic hormones U.S. in 2008: .6% cropland; 3.5% food sales Europe, Australia and New Zealand much higher Industrialized Agriculture Uses synthetic inorganic fertilizers and sewage sludge to supply plant

nutrients Makes use of synthetic chemical pesticides Uses conventional and genetically modified seeds Depends on nonrenewable fossil fuels (mostly oil and natural gas) Produces significant air and water pollution and greenhouse gases Is globally export-oriented Uses antibiotics and growth hormones to produce meat and meat products Fig. 12-1a, p. 277 Organic Agriculture Emphasizes prevention of soil erosion

and the use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure and compost, but no sewage sludge to help replace lost plant nutrients Employs crop rotation and biological pest control Uses no genetically modified seeds Reduces fossil fuel use and increases use of renewable energy such as solar and wind power for generating electricity Produces less air and water pollution and greenhouse gases Is regionally and locally oriented Uses no antibiotics or growth hormones to produce meat and meat products Fig. 12-1b, p. 277

12-1 What Is Food Security and Why Is It Difficult to Attain? Concept 12-1A Many people in less-developed countries have health problems from not getting enough food, while many people in moredeveloped countries have health problems from eating too much food. Concept 12-1B The greatest obstacles to providing enough food for everyone are poverty, political upheaval, corruption, war, and the harmful environmental effects of food production. Key Nutrients for a Healthy Human Life Table 12-1, p. 279

Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition (2) Chronic undernutrition, hunger Chronic malnutrition 1 in 6 people in less-developed countries is chronically undernourished or malnourished Famine Drought, flooding, war, other catastrophes Food Production Has Increased Dramatically Three systems produce most of our food Croplands: 77% on 11% worlds land area Rangelands, pastures, and feedlots: 16% on 29% of worlds land area Aquaculture: 7%

Importance of wheat, rice, and corn Tremendous increase in global food production Industrialized Crop Production Relies on High-Input Monocultures Industrialized agriculture, high-input agriculture Goal is to steadily increase crop yield Plantation agriculture: cash crops Primarily in less-developed countries Increased use of greenhouses to raise crops Case Study: Hydroponics: Growing Crops without Soil Hydroponics: growing plants in nutrient-rich water

solutions rather than soil Grow indoors almost anywhere, year-round Grow in dense urban areas Recycle water and fertilizers Little or no need for pesticides No soil erosion Takes money to establish Help make the transition to more sustainable agriculture Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on LowInput Polycultures (1) Traditional subsistence agriculture Human labor and draft animals for family food Traditional intensive agriculture Higher yields through use of manure and water

Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on LowInput Polycultures (2) Polyculture Benefits over monoculture Slash-and-burn agriculture Subsistence agriculture in tropical forests Clear and burn a small plot Grow many crops that mature at different times Reduced soil erosion Less need for fertilizer and water Science Focus: Soil Is the Base of Life on Land (1) Soil composition Eroded rock Mineral nutrients

Decaying organic matter Water Air Microscopic decomposers Science Focus: Soil Is the Base of Life on Land (2) Layers (horizons) of mature soils O horizon: leaf litter A horizon: topsoil B horizon: subsoil C horizon: parent material, often bedrock Moss and lichen Organic debris Rock fragments

Grasses and small shrubs Oak tree Honey fungus Fern Millipede Earthworm Wood sorrel O horizon Leaf litter

A horizon Topsoil Mole Bacteria B horizon Subsoil Fungus Bedrock Immature soil C horizon Parent material

Mite Young soil Root system Mature soil Red earth mite Beetle larva Nematode Fig. 12-A, p. 284 A Closer Look at Industrialized Crop

Production Green Revolution: increase crop yields 1. Monocultures of high-yield key crops Rice, wheat, and corn 2. Large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides, water 3. Multiple cropping Second Green Revolution Fast growing dwarf varieties World grain has tripled in production Case Study: Industrialized Food Production in

the United States Agribusiness Average farmer feeds 129 people Annual sales greater than auto, steel, and housing combined Food production: very efficient Americans spend 10% of income on food Hidden costs of subsidies and costs of pollution and environmental degradation Crossbreeding and Genetic Engineering Produce New Crop/Livestock Varieties (1) First gene revolution Cross-breeding through artificial selection Slow process

Amazing results Genetic engineering = second gene revolution Alter organisms DNA Genetic modified organisms (GMOs): transgenic organisms Fish and Shellfish Production Have Increased Dramatically Fishing with fleets depletes fisheries and uses many resources Aquaculture, blue revolution Worlds fastest-growing type of food production Dominated by operations that raise herbivorous species

World Seafood Production, Including Both Wild Catch and Aquaculture Fig. 12-9, p. 287 Industrialized Food Production Requires Huge Inputs of Energy Mostly nonrenewable energy oil and natural gas Farm machinery Irrigate crops Produce pesticides (petrochemicals) Commercial inorganic fertilizers Process and transport food 19% of total fossil fuel energy use in U.S. U.S. food travels an average of 2,400 kilometers

Producing Food Has Major Environmental Impacts Harmful effects of agriculture on Biodiversity Soil Water Air Human health Natural Capital Degradation Food Production Biodiversity Loss Loss and degradation of grasslands, forests, and

wetlands in cultivated areas Fish kills from pesticide runoff Killing wild predators to protect livestock Loss of genetic diversity of wild crop strains replaced by monoculture strains Soil Water Erosion

Water waste Loss of fertility Aquifer depletion Salinization Waterlogging Desertification Increased acidity Increased runoff, sediment pollution, and flooding from cleared land

Pollution from pesticides and fertilizers Air Pollution Emissions of greenhouse gas CO2 from fossil fuel use Emissions of greenhouse gas N2O from use of inorganic fertilizers Emissions of greenhouse gas methane (CH4) by cattle (mostly

belching) Human Health Nitrates in drinking water (blue baby) Pesticide residues in drinking water, food, and air Contamination of drinking and swimming water from livestock wastes Algal blooms and fish kills in lakes

and rivers caused Bacterial by runoff of contamination of Other air pollutants fertilizers and agriculturalfrom fossil fuel use and meat wastes pesticide sprays Fig. 12-10, p. 289 Topsoil Erosion Is a Serious Problem in Parts of the World Soil erosion Movement of soil by wind and water Natural causes

Human causes Two major harmful effects of soil erosion Loss of soil fertility Water pollution Drought and Human Activities Are Degrading Drylands Desertification Moderate Severe Very severe Human agriculture accelerates desertification Effect of global warming on desertification

Excessive Irrigation Has Serious Consequences Salinization Gradual accumulation of salts in the soil from irrigation water Lowers crop yields and can even kill plants Affects 10% of world croplands Waterlogging Irrigation water gradually raises water table Can prevent roots from getting oxygen Affects 10% of world croplands Agriculture Contributes to Air Pollution and Projected Climate Change Clearing and burning of forests for croplands

One-fourth of all human-generated greenhouse gases Livestock contributes 18% of gases: methane in cow belches Grass-fed better than feedlots Trade-Offs: Genetically Modified Crops and Foods Fig. 12-18, p. 294 There Are Limits to Expanding the Green Revolutions Usually require large inputs of fertilizer, pesticides, and water Often too expensive for many farmers

Can we expand the green revolution by Irrigating more cropland? Improving the efficiency of irrigation? Cultivating more land? Marginal land? Using GMOs? Multicropping? Trade-Offs Animal Feedlots Advantages Disadvantages Increased meat production

Large inputs of grain, fish meal, water, and fossil fuels Higher profits Less land use Reduced overgrazing Reduced soil erosion Protection of biodiversity Greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) emissions

Concentration of animal wastes that can pollute water Use of antibiotics can increase genetic resistance to microbes in humans Fig. 12-19, p. 295 Trade-Offs Aquaculture Advantages Disadvantages High efficiency

Large inputs of land, feed, and water High yield Large waste output Reduced overharvesting of fisheries Loss of mangrove forests and estuaries Low fuel use

Some species fed with grain, fish meal, or fish oil High profits Dense populations vulnerable to disease Fig. 12-20, p. 296 We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest Populations (2) First-generation pesticides Borrowed from plants Second-generation pesticides

Lab produced: DDT and others Benefits versus harm Broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum agents Persistence varies Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several Advantages Save human lives Increases food supplies and profits for farmers Work quickly For many, health risks are very low relative to benefits New pest control methods: safer and more effective Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several

Disadvantages (1) Accelerate rate of genetic resistance in pests Expensive for farmers Some insecticides kill natural predators and parasites that help control the pest population Pollution in the environment Some harm wildlife Some are human health hazards Pesticide Use Has Not Reduced U.S. Crop Losses to Pests David Pimentel: Pesticide use has not reduced U.S. crop loss to pests 1942-1997: crop losses from insects increased from 7% to 13%, even with 10x increase in pesticide use High environmental, health, and social costs with use

Use alternative pest management practices Pesticide industry disputes these findings Trade-Offs Conventional Chemical Pesticides Advantages Disadvantages Save lives Promote genetic resistance Increase food

supplies Kill natural pest enemies Profitable Pollute the environment Work fast Can harm wildlife and people Safe if used properly Are expensive for

farmers Fig. 12-22, p. 299 There Are Alternatives to Using Pesticides (1) Fool the pest Crop rotation; changing planting times Provide homes for pest enemies Polyculture Implant genetic resistance genetic engineering Bring in natural enemies Predators, parasites, diseases There Are Alternatives to Using Pesticides (2)

Use insect perfumes pheromones Bring in hormones Interfere with pest life cycle Alternative methods of weed control Crop rotation, cover crops, mulches Reduce Soil Erosion Soil conservation, some methods Terracing Contour planting Strip cropping with cover crop Alley cropping, agroforestry Windbreaks or shelterbelts

Conservation-tillage farming No-till Minimum tillage Identify erosion hotspots Restore Soil Fertility Organic fertilizer Animal manure Green manure Compost Manufactured inorganic fertilizer Nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium Crop rotation

Solutions Soil Salinization Prevention Cleanup Flush soil (expensive and wastes water) Reduce irrigation Stop growing crops for 25 years Switch to salttolerant crops

Install underground drainage systems (expensive) Fig. 12-31, p. 308 Solutions: More Sustainable Aquaculture Fig. 12-32, p. 308 Solutions More Sustainable Agriculture More Less

High-yield polyculture Soil erosion Soil salinization Organic fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated pest management Efficient irrigation Perennial crops Crop rotation Water-efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidies for

sustainable farming Water pollution Aquifer depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity and agrobiodiversity Fossil fuel use Greenhouse gas emissions Subsidies for unsustainable farming Fig. 12-34, p. 310

Solutions Organic Farming Improves soil fertility Reduces soil erosion Retains more water in soil during drought years Uses about 30% less energy per unit of yield Lowers CO2 emissions Reduces water pollution by recycling livestock wastes Eliminates pollution from pesticides Increases biodiversity above and below ground

Benefits wildlife such as birds and bats Fig. 12-35, p. 311 What Can You Do? Sustainable Organic Agriculture Fig. 12-37, p. 313

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