1. What were the major social effects of the market revolution? 2. What revolutionary changes did American slavery undergo during this period? 3. What role did immigration play in the market revolution?
4. How does the Second Great Awakening relate to the market revolution? Objective AP Topic. Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum America
The transportation revolution and creation of a national market economy Beginnings of industrialization and changes in social and class structures Immigration and nativist reaction Planters, yeoman farmers, and slaves in the
cotton South The Market Revolution The New Economy Roads and steamboats Improvements in transportation lowered costs and linked
farmers to markets. Improved water transportation most dramatically increased the speed and lowered the expense of commerce. Transportation and
Communication The Erie Canal Completed in 1825 and made NYC a major trading port. State-funded canal as example for funding for internal improvements.
Railroads and Telegraphs Railroads opened the frontier to settlement Telegraph introduced a communication revolution Improvements in transportation and communication made possible the rise of the West. People traveled in groups to clear land and establish
communities. Squatters set up farms on unoccupied land. The Cotton Kingdom The market revolution and westward expansion heightened the nations sectional divisions.
Rise of cotton production came with Eli Whitneys cotton gin. The cotton gin revolutionized American slavery. Historians estimate that around 1 million slaves were shifted old slave states to deep south between 1800-1860
Slave trading became organized business. The Market Society Commercial farmers The Norwest became a region with an integrated economy of commercial farms and
manufacturing cities. Farmers grew crops and raised livestock for sale. The cities in the East provided credit and a market. New technologies:
Steel plow Reaper The Factory System Samuel Slater establishes first factory in 1790 First large scale factories in 1814 in Waltham, Mass. Then
Lowell, Mass. Nature of work shifted from skilled artisan to that of factory worker. Mass production of interchangeable parts assembled into standardized products. New England textile mills relied primarily on female and
child labor. South lagged behind the North in terms of factory production. Growth of Immigration Economic expansion fueled demand for
labor German and Irish settled primarily in Northern cities. Reasons for migration (push and pull factors) Filled mainly low-wage unskilled jobs
Nativism Racist reaction to immigration Response to growing Catholic presence (Irish) Nativists blamed immigrants for:
Political corruption Alcohol abuse Undercutting wages Individualism Freedom linked to availability of land (Manifest
Destiny) National myth and ideology surrounding the West Transcendentalists responded to competitive materialists individualism of emergent capitalism with idea of self-realization through
which individuals remake themselves and their own lives Ralph Emerson (Self-Reliance) The Second Great Awakening
Added religious element to celebration of individual self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination. Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate N.Y. Democratized Christianity
Promoted doctrine of human free will Used opportunities of market revolution to spread their message Limits of Prosperity Opportunities for the self-made man
Jacob Astor and Heratio Alger Market revolution produced a new middle class. Barred from schools and other public facilities most free African Americans and
women were excluded from economic opportunities. Cult of Domesticity New definition of femininity emerged based on values of love, friendship, and mutual
obligation Virtue became personal moral quality Women should find freedom fulfilling their duties in their sphere Early Labor Movement
Some felt that the market revolution reduced their freedom Economic swings widened gap between rich and poor First workingmans parties est. 1820s Strikes were common by the 1830s Wage-earners evoked liberty when calling for
improvements in the workplace Some described wage labor as slavery: wage slaves
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