Argumentative Writing! - The Webb Page

Argumentative Writing! - The Webb Page

Argumentative Writing! 1. 2. 3. 4. Agenda: Content Overview Quick review of argumentative writing steps Writing Self Assessment/ Goals Source analysis *Persuasion = a process aimed at changing a persons (or a groups) attitude or behavior toward some event, idea or object, by using written words to convey information, feelings or reasoning *persuading someone to do or believe something through the use of reasoning The Purpose of a persuasive essay is to test your ability to use your knowledge and writing ability to Persuade the reader on a particular topic Content Overview Liberty

Liberty vs. Security VS. The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions The power or scope to act as one pleases The preservation of extensive civil liberties Security The state of being free from danger or threat Procedures followed or measures taken to ensure the

safety of a state or organization What has happened to Civil Liberties historically during times of Crisis? Examples of Crisis The Civil War WW1 First Red Scare WW2 Second Red Scare Restrictions Habeas Corpus Suspended Espionage & Sedition Acts Palmer Raids Japanese Internment McCarthyism The Supreme Courts Role with the Constitution What decides where the line between security and Liberty is drawn? 1. Schenck v. US 1919 In a time of Clear & Present Danger civil liberties can be restricted, especially in public spaces

2. New York Times Co. v. US 1971 freedom of the press must be preserved as a check against govt power (classified Pentagon Papers on the Vietnam war were printed) Current Events & Security Post 9/11 Examples: Mayor Says New York City Will Settle Suits on Stop -and-Frisk Tactics (USA PATRIOT) that stands for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 1. Authorization of indefinite detentions of Update on Patriot Act immigrants; 2. The permission given law enforcement officers to Following oforCongressional approval,

parts search aa lack home business without the owner's of the Patriot Act expired on or June 1, 2015. With or the occupant's consent knowledge; the passage of theuse USA Act on Letters, June 2, 3. The expanded

of Freedom National Security 2015 the expired parts restored and e-mail, which allows the FBI were to search telephone, renewed throughrecords 2019. without a court order and financial 4. The expanded access of law enforcement However, Section 215 ofrecords, the lawincluding was amended agencies

to business library to stopand thefinancial National Security Agency from records. continuing itscourt-approved mass phone data collection 5. Authorize roving wiretaps that program permit surveillance on multiple phones. 6. Allow court-approved seizure of records and . Instead, companies will retain the data propertyphone in anti-terrorism operations.

and the NSA can obtainagainst information about 7. Permit surveillance a so-called lone wolf, targeted individuals permission fromwho a may a non-U.S. citizen with engaged in terrorism federal court not be part(#Warrants) of a recognized terrorist group

Essay Topic Should the federal government have the ability to restrict the rights of American citizens in a time of crisis? We all like to think that Bill of Rights applies to all American citizens under any situation. We promote these civil liberties through our work and our personal interests every day. However, in times of crisis the response by the federal government has often been to promote the security of the nation while enacting legislation that temporarily suspends the Bill of Rights. These actions have long been debated by scholars and citizens who passionately support those who seek to reprimand the government for its restrictive behavior or support the governments attempts to promote national security. 2. Quick review of argumentative writing steps Steps to a Well Written Persuasive Paper 1. Read the question Determine what the assignment is asking you to do. What is the question asking you to decide?

2. Read through and analyze the sources DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP 3. Outline and organize your paper 4. Write! 5. Revise and edit Read and Understand the Question Should the federal government have the ability to restrict the rights of American citizens in a time of crisis? _________________ vs. _________________ 1. Based on the question and task page what is the question asking YOU to decide? 2. What is the scenario? (who is the audience and what is the purpose of your argumentative essay?) 2. Read through and analyze the sources Steps to Active Reading: 1. Gain an overview of the text before reading 2. Read with purpose

3. Understand Vocabulary 4. Make Connections so that you remember what you read 5. Keep Track of your reading Take notes, highlight, track the words with your pencil 3. Outline and organize your paper Plan it out! Hone your outline and then cling to it as a lifeline. You can adjust it in midstream, but dont try to just write your way into a better structure: think about the right structure and then write to it. Your outline will get you through those periods when you cant possibly imagine ever finishing the thing at those times, your outline will let you see it as a sequence of manageable 1,000 word sections. - Bill Wasik Author of And Then Theres This: How Stories Live and Die in Viral Culture

Introduction Without a Thesis With a Thesis Body Paragraphs Parts of a Body Paragraph Topic Sentence Position + Argument Tag, Supporting Detail/ Evidence, (citation). Analysis and Explanation Tag, Supporting Detail/ Evidence, (citation). Analysis and Explanation Tag, Supporting Detail/ Evidence, (citation). Analysis and Explanation Transition/ Conclusion The Spartan polis was superior to other Greek city-states because Spartan women had roles outside of the traditional Greek home sphere that gave them more independence and duties. These features required them to be in good physical shape, have the ability to inherit property, and have an education beyond the Athenian housewifes skills. According to Xenophon, the Spartans arranged competitions of racing and

strength for women also, thinking that if both parents were strong their children would be most robust, while other Greeks expect girls to sit quietly and work wool, (Doc 4). This difference in social expectations highlights how Spartan women were encouraged to be different from other Greek women. The public competitions allowed Spartan women to fulfill their obligation to have strong children but it also allowed them to compete in tasks that were restricted to men in other Greek poli. Rather than confining them to a more traditional and one dimensional occupation, such as weaving wool, Spartan women were given tasks and responsibilities that were of equal importance for the wellbeing of the community and were trained accordingly. Aristotle also demonstrated the importance the womens role in Sparta when he stated that nearly two-fifths of the whole country is in the hands of women because they were allowed to inherit property, (Doc 4). While Aristotle, like a traditional Greek male, disapproved of the practice of letting women inherit, the Spartans clearly embraced this practice. By giving women the right to inherit property Sparta allowed them a more active role in the community and clearly tied them to the wellbeing of the Polis in a more literal way, by expecting them to more deeply care for the property that was legally theirs. In addition to Spartan women having more freedom than other Greeks they were also given greater responsibility and according to historians Duiker and Spielvogel, upheld the strict Spartan values, expecting their husbands and sons to be brave in war, (Doc 1). All of the additional physical training and inheritance rights made the Spartan women more invested in their communities and as a result they felt the responsibility to uphold the Spartan militaristic values as keenly as any of the men. By encouraging their husbands and sons to participate bravely in war they demonstrated their patriotism and commitment by sacrificing their own personal happiness for the good of the greater community. Spartan women had more freedoms and responsibilities than the other Greek communities and as a result Sparta also had a stronger community culture that made them a superior polis.

[The Spartan polis was superior to other Greek city-states] because Spartan women had roles outside of the traditional Greek home sphere that gave them more independence and duties. Spartan women had more freedoms and responsibilities than the other Greek communities and as a result Sparta also had a stronger community culture that made them a superior polis. [The Spartan polis was superior to other Greek city-states] because Spartan women had roles outside of the traditional Greek home sphere that gave them more independence and duties. These features required them to be in good physical shape, have the ability to inherit property, and have an education beyond the Athenian housewifes skills. According to Xenophon, the Spartans arranged competitions of racing and strength for women also, thinking that if both parents were strong their children would be most robust, while other Greeks expect girls to sit quietly and work wool, (Doc 4). This difference in social expectations highlights how Spartan women were encouraged to be different from other Greek women. The public competitions allowed Spartan women to fulfill their obligation to have strong children but it also allowed them to compete in tasks that were restricted to men in other Greek poli. Rather than confining them to a more traditional and one dimensional occupation, such as weaving wool, Spartan women were given tasks and responsibilities that were of equal importance for the wellbeing of the community and were trained accordingly. Aristotle also demonstrated the importance the womens role in Sparta when he stated that

nearly two-fifths of the whole country is in the hands of women because they were allowed to inherit property, (Doc 4). While Aristotle, like a traditional Greek male, disapproved of the practice of letting women inherit, the Spartans clearly embraced this practice. By giving women the right to inherit property Sparta allowed them a more active role in the community and clearly tied them to the wellbeing of the Polis in a more literal way, by expecting them to more deeply care for the property that was legally theirs. In addition to Spartan women having more freedom than other Greeks they were also given greater responsibility and according to historians Duiker and Spielvogel, upheld the strict Spartan values, expecting their husbands and sons to be brave in war, (Doc 1). All of the additional physical training and inheritance rights made the Spartan women more invested in their communities and as a result they felt the responsibility to uphold the Spartan militaristic values as keenly as any of the men. By encouraging their husbands and sons to participate bravely in war they demonstrated their patriotism and commitment by sacrificing their own personal happiness for the good of the greater community. Spartan women had more freedoms and responsibilities than the other Greek communities and as a result Sparta also had a stronger community culture that made them a superior polis. 4. Write! Major Issues for Junior Writers Remember to use Formal writing/ language You are trying to sway National opinion & change the future using slang, colloquialisms or just poor language & sentence structure will not help you do this Topic Sentence

This has become very formulaic (if included at all) Examples: First of all To start with Initially . (youre not using initially correctly) 4. Write! Major Issues for Junior Writers Using supporting Evidence Do not make unsupported and vague arguments Beware listing make sure your include an explanation of how the information connects to your argument CITE YOUR SOURCES Transitions There are 2 types of Transitions Transitional phrases/ words within a body paragraph that contribute the fluency and form of the paragraph. The transitions between paragraphs that focus on transitioning the reader from one argument to the next. Transitional Phrases occur WITHIN a Paragraph I dont wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the largebodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy

perspective, BUT I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. Stephen Jay Gould, Were Dinosaurs Dumb? Transition Sentences Changing Ideas Smoothly Transition between Ideas: Example: Paragraph 1 Conclusion/ Transition While the

Spartan men were excellent warriors who focused on protecting their homeland they also expected women to serve the community and gave them freedoms and responsibilities other Greek women were unaccustomed to. By giving men and women specific tasks to accomplish the community ensured that it would be both protected and well run in times of war. Paragraph 2 Intro The Spartan polis was superior to other Greek city-states because Spartan women had roles outside of the traditional Greek home sphere that gave them more independence and duties. These features required them to be in good physical shape, able to inherit property, and have an education beyond the Athenian housewifes skills. Activity Read through the transitions of your essay Rewrite one transition so that your

two arguments flow from one to another *try to avoid using transitional words just to use the words 4. Write! Be aware of your strengths and weaknesses as a writer. ASK QUESTIONS if you get stuck Writing means sharing. Its part of the human condition to want to share things thoughts, ideas, opinions. - Paulo Coelho Revise and Editing Read through your essay and check for mistakes or to clarify

Grammar and Spelling 1. Check your spelling. 2. Check your grammar. 3. Make sure each sentence has a subject. 4. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. 5. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. Style and Organization 1. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence. 2. Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea. 3. Make sure you have a closing sentence. 4. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea. 5. See if your paragraph is interesting. Dont look back until youve written an entire draft, just begin each day from the last sentence you wrote the preceding day. This prevents those cringing feelings, and means that

you have a substantial body of work before you get down to the real work which is all in The edit. 3. Writing Self Assessment/ Goals How did you do on Essay 1 ____, Essay 2 ____ What is your Grade goal for Essay 3 ________ What area are you strongest at in the writing process? ______________________________ What area do you require the most improvement in during the writing process? ________________________________________ 4. Source Analysis Identify: Document: Author: Is the Author Reliable? Why or Why not? Main Idea Summary: Arguments

Supporting Detail A reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an action or idea is right or wrong. Specifics and details that support the arguments and provide useful information for the reader. Conclusion on source: (How can you use this source in your paper? What position does this source support? Etc.) Active Reading!!! Gain an overview of

the text before reading Read with Purpose Understand the Vocabulary Connect with what your reading **KEEP Track of your Reading ***

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