ASIA—3000 B.C to 1000 A.D.

ASIA—3000 B.C to 1000 A.D.

Bellringer Which two factors contributed to the failure of Kublai Khans invasion of Japan in 1272 and 1281? What were Japanese warriors who devoted themselves to nobles and lived by a strict code called? What code did they live by? What religion or philosophy borrowed from the Chinese became intertwined with this code?: On which island of Japan were most of the larger cities found? Name the locations of the first four major civilizations, specifically by naming the river locations they were founded near. ASIA3000 B.C to 1400 A.D. Geography: India, Nepal, South Central Asia

1 Monsoons, or seasonal wind patterns, bring heavy rain to western parts of India during the summer months. During the Winter, the winds reverse, bringing wetter cooler air to the eastern side of India

The Himalaya Mountains, tallest mountains in the world(Nepal(1)-Mount Everest) Monsoons Indian Ocean IndiaEarly Civilizations 1. Similar to Egypt and Mesopotamia, Indias early civilization began in a fertile river valley, the Indus River. ~3000 B.C. to 1500 B.C. Two well planned cities, Harappa, and Mohenjo Daro, were established in the river valley.

The early Indus civilizations ended around 1500 B.C, probably due to new civilizations moving in. ~ 2000 B.C. the Aryans' (an Indo European people), moved in to India. They merged with other Indian civilizations and became the dominate culture. The Aryans brought new technology, including: Iron(plows for farming) Written language(Sanskrit) Earliest Sanskrit writing: 1500 B.C.the Vedas Indus River Valley

Ancient Indian Society 2. Indian civilization centered on family life, an oldest male dominated family. Grandparents, parents, and children often lived together. Women had very little power, and marriages of daughters were often arranged by parents. In ancient India, when men died, the ritual of Suttee required women to throw themselves on the burning pyre of their deceased husbands! Indian culture also divided society into 4 parts, called varnas. People were born into their place---(based on religious purity)

Leaders or teachers Warriors Merchants or farmers Servants Also---Untouchableslowest of the low. Indias system evolved into the caste system. Ancient Indian Religions: Hinduism 3. Ancient India developed two important religions: Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism believed in the existence of a single force, or reality, in the universe, called Brahman. A Hindu's spiritual goal is to join with Brahman.

The practice of Yoga was developed to train the mind and body to reach a state of union with Brahman. Yoga Hindus developed other gods in addition to Brahma to express ideals of their beliefs, including Vishnu and Shiva. Vishnu Brahma Shiva Ancient Indian Religions: Hinduism Hindu also practice the concept of reincarnation, the idea that the soul is reborn after death in another form.

The process of reincarnation is built around the idea of Karma. According to Karma, what people do in their current life dictates what their next life will be. To the Hindu, dharma is the divine law people live by, it dictates how they should live and act according to theirRich social status. King behaves badly!!!! Ancient Indian Religions: Buddhism

4. The religion Buddhism was founded in 563 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, who became known as the Buddha, or enlightened one The Buddha was raised a wealthy noble, but chose to live a life of poverty in order to find the true meaning of life. Buddha believed he reached enlightenment through meditation. Key to Buddhism is reaching Nirvana, an ultimate reality and reunion the Great World Soul. Buddha rejected rigid caste systems of the Hindu. He also rejected the multiple gods of Hindu. Many see Buddhism as more a philosophy than a religion. Buddha died in 480 B.C. in Nepal, after which followers spread his message throughout India and Asia. Contributions of early Indian Civilization

Indian culture had several achievements that influenced mankind: Religion: Hinduism and Buddhism Algebra created by Aryabhata Chess Arabic numerals, including zero. East Asia: Geography 1. Himalayan Mountains 7 2

2. Mongolia 8 3. Yellow River 3 5 4. Yangtze River 5. Japan 1 6. India

7. Taklimakan Desert 6 4 8. Gobi Desert China: Early Civilizations 5. Civilization in China and East Asia began in the fertile area between the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. China is surrounded by both deserts and mountains, which provided it natural protection from outside invasion. Zhou Dynasty Early Chinese civilizations included the Xia, the Shang, and the Zhou

Dynasties. The early Chinese Dynasties were ruled by kings and wealthy aristocrats who served in a complex bureaucracy. Qin Dynasty Zhou kings claimed to rule by a Mandate of Heaven, meaning kings linked the natural world to the great powers of the universe, (heaven). This system mandated that ineffective kings should be replaced by better rulers. China would be ruled by a series of dynasties for over 2000 years.

Early Chinese culture 6. The Chinese developed a language based on picture symbols called Pictographs. They combined Pictographs to represent broader ideas in ideographs. The Chinese developed Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, all very important to early Chinese culture and government. Chinese also developed a method of acquiring silk from silkworms. Silk became a very important trade item which linked European and Asian civilizations. Confucianism 7. Confucianism was founded by the Chinese philosopher Confucius in the late 500 century B.C.. It spread quickly after his death in 479 B.C. Confucianism is a belief in a natural order of things. It is not necessarily a spiritual religion,

rather a philosophy on how to establish an ethical and harmonies society. Confucianism taught the important of family and society roles, and the duty of each member of family and society. Hard work and improving life on earth important! Confucianism believed education was connected to public service. It led to Merit based civil service test being used by Chinese dynasties. This practice would be passed on to today! Daoism and Legalism 8. Daoism, (Taoism), was based on the teachings of Laozi(may not have existed). Daoism believed in living in harmony with the natural world.

Legalism was a philosophy which rejected both Confucianism and Daoism. Legalist believed people were evil by nature. Legalist believed only strong leaders who enforced harsh laws and stiff punishment could maintain an ordered society. The Silk Road: Trade opens Asia 9. The goods of India and China became highly sought by western civilizations including Persia, Egypt, and Rome. Between 200 B.C. and 100 A.D., the Silk Road was slowly developed. Asian goods, especially silk, were traded over a road that stretched from Constantinople to China, more than 4000 miles. The Silk Road would falter then be revitalized by the Mongols.

Movie: (C.C. Silk Road) Chinese Dynasties: The Qin (221 B.C. to 202 B.C.) 10. The Qin Dynasty, established by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, conquered consolidated China in 221 B.C. Emperor Qin had roads built throughout China connecting his empire. He also instituted strict legalism, ruling his empire with fear and punishment. Under Qin, the Government was divided into parts, and people were assigned jobs by merit test. Qin faced constant threat from nomads to the north. Qin tried to strengthen a series of walls to protect the kingdom. This project began a project called the Great Wall of China. (project took over 1500 years to

complete) The wall we see today was built much later! 1500 years later! Chinese Dynasties: The Han (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.) 11. Liu Pang, who became known as Han Gaozu, established the Han dynasty in 202 B.C. The Han dynasty threw out the legalist philosophy and embraced Confucianism. Liu Pang Over the next 400 years, the Han dynasty expanded the Chinese empire over much of eastern Asia. Advancements in technology, including iron production, the development of paper, and the invention of the rudder and advanced sailing

systems improved and expanded trade. The Chinese even developed steel! Steel was not discover in Europe until the 18th Century. 581-1280 A.D.Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties 12. The end of the Han dynasty in 220 A.D. would lead to chaos for 300 years in China, until a series of new dynasties developed. Three new dynasties would emerge for the next 700 years: the Sui, the Tang, and the Song. The Sui linked the two great rivers,(Yellow and Yangtze Rivers), with a great canal. The Sui leaders were cruel, leading to rebellion in 618 A.D. by the Tang. The Tang would rule until 907 A.D.

The Song dynasty would rule from 907 to 1280, until the Mongols conquered all of Asia. Chinese culture (581-1280) During the 700 year rule of the Sui, Tang and Song, Chinese life, economy, and government systems improved and expanded in complexity. New discoveries in metallurgy improved metals used for tools. Steel was used in swords and farm material. Cotton became a popular crop for clothing. Massive food production skyrocketed the Chinese population. The Silk Road renewed and thrived, and ships carried trade to Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asian islands. Gunpowder was discovered and used for fireworks and explosives. The Chinese

even developed a flame thrower! Movie: 20 minute history of China (C.C. China) Rise of the Mongols Mongolia is located north of China in central Asia. It was separated from China by the Gobi desert. Mongolia was inhabited by clans of nomads. In 1206 A.D. the clans would be united by a Temujin, who was elected Genghis Khan of all Mongolian Tribes. Genghis Khan conquered an incredible empire in amazing speed, led by his unique system of a massive traveling army and his brutal tactics. (Examine page 276-277) HoM moviePlague 1:15 to 8:05

10:10 to 12:45 The Mongol Empire Crash Course Genghis Khan Kublai Khan and Marco Polo Genghis Khan died in 1227 A.D., leaving his empire divided into Khanates, which were ruled by his sons and grandsons. Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, ruled and expanded the Chinese Khanate by defeating the Song dynasty. Kublai established the Yuan Dynasty in China. Kublai adapted Chinese technology, government systems, and culture to his own. During the reign of Kublai, Marco Polo visited from Europe. His writings about his

trade expedition to the amazing empire of Kublai were brought back to the western world. Japan and Korea D Korea E C A B

F A. Kyushu (Japan) B. Shikoku (Japan) C. Honshu (Japan) D. Hokkaido (Japan) E. Sea of Japan F. Pacific Ocean Japan

14. Japan is a set of four major islands off the east coast of Asia. The total land area is about the size of Montana. Japans culture has been deeply affected by its natural isolation. Japan is very mountainous, only 11% of the land is farmable. Japans most notable geographical feature is Mount Fuji, the largest mountain. It is located near modern day Tokyo on Honshu. Japanese History Japans earliest civilizations began when farmers settled the fertile farmland in central Honshu. Society of early Japan divided into clans, each ruled by a aristocratic class. In the early 7th century, Shotuku Taishi of the Yamato clan, gained control of Japan, and created a central government based on the Chinese model. Tax revenues were paid to the central government instead of the aristocratic clan

leaders. Taishi became the first in a line of emperors. Taishi created the idea that the Yamato clan were descended from gods, securing a divine power of his line. Taishi appointed the aristocratic clan leaders as governors of areas to keep them loyal and happy. Japan: The Nara and Heian Periods Taishi died in 622 A.D., leaving a series of Yamato emperors to rule. The emperors slowly lost power to various clans who kept taxes for themselves instead of sending it to capital. Over the next 200 years, the capital of Japan was moved first to Nara, then to Heian-Kyo. The decline in central power let to division of power among powerful clans. Each clan was protected by

its own military servants, called samurai. Samurai were fierce well trained soldiers who lived by a strict code known as the Bushidothe way of the warrior Quick Video: (Sam Rap): Japan vs. Kublai Khan 15. In the 12th Century, Japan was struggling with constant civil war. A powerful noble defeated several other rivals and established a new central power called a shogunate. The shogunate was run by a military leader called a shogun. The Shogunate lasted from 1192 to 1333. The Shogunate established a strong army to protect Japan. In 1272 China, (ruled by Mongols), attempted to invade Japan, but were caught in a horrible storm. In 1281 Kublai Khan again sent a massive fleet and 150,000 men to defeat Japan.

Japan was saved by another great storm, called a typhoon, which again destroyed the Chinese fleet. The Japanese called these storms kamikaze, or divine winds Japan to the 1800s In the 15th century Japan was eventually unified by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who used European weapons, (Portuguese firearms), to rule. His successor was the brilliant Tokugawa, who ruled by controlling all advanced weapons, (firearms), limiting the size of armies besides his, and isolating Japan from all trade except Portugal. Tokugawas line ruled till the mid 1800s, and Japan enjoyed a lasting peace until 1868. Japanese Culture and Religion 16. Religion: The Japanese early beliefs centered on spirits of nature called Kami,

and spirits of their ancestors. This was called Shinto and is still part of Japanese beliefs today. The Japanese also accepted Buddhism brought by Chinese Monks. Japanese Buddhism evolved into Zen Buddhism, and was especially embraced by the Samurai. Korea 17. Korea is a peninsula off Eastern Asia. It is a mountainous country difficult to reach. Korea adopted much of its culture from the Chinese, though Koreas language and traditions remained their own. Koreans adopted Chinese character writing, Confucian ideas, government institutions, and Buddhism.

After learning farming and bronze technology, three kingdoms, the Koguryo, the Paekche, and the Silla arose. Eventually the Silla allied with the Chinese and gained total power. The Koreans would be conquered by the Mongols. Eventually a Korean warlord defeated the Mongols in 1392 A.D., and the Koreans would have their independence for 500 years under the protection of Chinese emperors. Southeast Asia Southeast Asia 18. Southeast Asia consist of a series of coastal cultures separated by large mountains running north and south, a large peninsula called the Malay Peninsula,

and series of large islands separating the Indian and Pacific Ocean. The first SE Asia culture, Vietnam, emerged ~200 B.C. The Chinese conquered them in 111 B.C. but struggled to control them. Vietnam eventually adopted Chinese Confucianism, Government style, and other cultural ways. In the 9th Century the Kingdom of Angkor developed in the region of Cambodia, and lasted until 1432. Southeast Asia Additional cultures developed in SE Asia in Thailand, Burma, and the Malay Peninsula. Eventually Islamic and European traders began to settle and establish

coastal trading cities which came to dominate SE Asia. The culture of SE Asia slowly became dominated by the Islamic religion, though certain areas still retain Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hindu. Perhaps the most beautiful and magnificent cultural icons of SE Asia is the Hindu temple the Angkor Wat in Thailand. The Angkor Wat was the capital of the Khmer Empire Built in 1100 A.D., it took 40 years to construct. A three mile wide moat surrounded it. Angkor Wat

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